Libmonster ID: IN-1256
Author(s) of the publication: T. V. BELOUSOVA

T. V. BELOUSOVA, post-graduate student of St. Petersburg State University

India Keywords:higher educationknowledge economy

The success of the Indian economy over the past two decades is respected all over the world. However, despite the achievements in this area and optimistic forecasts regarding India's future position in the global economic system, there are factors that, on the one hand, can slow down the pace of economic growth, and on the other, can create serious obstacles to the country's full integration into the global economy. We are talking about the state of affairs in the educational sphere.

It is worth recalling that the economic reforms that began in 1991 marked a turning point in the country's socio-economic development. From an agrarian underdeveloped state with a closed economy, India began to turn into an open state, where the flow of foreign investment rushed. The welfare of the people grew mainly due to the development of industry and services.1 Table 1 shows the nature of India's economic development in recent years.

DEMOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY

India is expected to become the most populous country in the world by 2035. According to the World Bank (WB), by the beginning of 2011 India's population has reached 1.24 billion. people (in China-1.34 billion)2. India is considered one of the" youngest " countries in the world: 1/5 of the population belongs to the age group up to 24 years.

On the one hand, population growth carries potential opportunities for the country's development; on the other hand, it requires significant investment in the development of human capital, especially in the part of it that relates to education and health. India has more school-age children than anywhere else in the world. With access to modern education, they could become the driving force behind the country's sustainable economic and innovative growth. Unfortunately, the quality of education in India is inferior to many other countries, including neighboring China. In India, the literacy rate is only 60%, while in KIR it is 90% .3

The number of young people aged 17 to 21 currently stands at approximately 90 million, and is projected to grow to 150 million by 2025.! Meanwhile, universities, of which there are more than 500 in the country, and 31 thousand colleges can cover only 12% of the population in this age category. Despite the fact that the population growth in India is 1.34% per year - this is twice as much as in China.

Unfortunately, India has the lowest Human Development Index (HDI) among the BRICS countries (see Table 2). And this problem is extremely urgent, as the country strives to become unconditionally competitive in the world market-primarily in the fields of information technology, biotechnology, automotive industry, space exploration, etc.

According to the UN report published in 2012, India is among the countries with an average level of human development (136th place) and is on a par with such countries as Iraq, Cape Verde, Guatemala, Timor-Leste, Ghana, Equatorial Guinea, Laos, Cambodia, Bhutan, Swaziland (Norway ranks 1st and the Democratic Republic of the Congo ranks last, 186th) 5.

Table 1

GDP growth in 2002-2011 (% compared to the previous year)

Years

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

%

3,9

7,9

7,8

9,3

9,3

Years

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

%

9,8

3,9

8,2

9,6

6,9



Source: http://worldbank.org

page 32

Table 2

BRICS Human Development Index (HDI)

A country

HDI

Current position

by HDI level,

2011

Average duration of school attendance (years), 2011

Percentage of the population with an average

education, 2010

 

Women

Men

India

0,547

134

4,4

26,6

50,4

Brazil

0,718

84

7,2

48,8

46,3

China

0,687

101

7,5

54,8

70,4

Russia

0,755

66

9,8

90,6

95,6

South Africa

0,619

123

8,5

66,3

68,0

The world at large

0,682

-

7,4

50,8

61,7



Источник: Statistical Yearbook, India 2012. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation - http://mospi.nic.in

FEATURES OF HIGHER SCHOOL FORMATION

Higher education plays a fundamental role in the development of human capital in any country. To date, India has developed the following structure of higher education and special education (see Table 3).

The type of educational institution here is largely determined by the nature of management: at the level of the government, local authorities, or a private individual, sometimes receiving financial support from the government.6 Higher education is represented by the following types of educational institutions: universities; so-called recognized universities ("deemed to be universities") specializing in a specific scientific direction (as opposed to traditional universities with many faculties); educational institutions of national importance, for example, Institutes of Technology (Indian Institutes of Technology, IIT), All-India Medical Institute institute, etc.; research institutes; colleges 7.

Despite the relative maturity of higher education, Indian universities do not receive any high marks in international rankings. Only technological and management institutes are widely known in the world, but they do not have the status of universities. 8

Below are the data on the positions of Indian higher education institutions in international rankings:

QS* - World University Rankings, 2011 (Top 500 Universities)9:

Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) - 281-е место.

QS Asian University Rankings, 2012 (Top 300 Universities)10:

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (NTV) - 34th;

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) - 36-е;

Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) - 45-е;

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (НТК) - 47-е;

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (IITKGP) - 56-е;

Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IITR) - 65-е;

University of Delhi - 78-е

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati (IITG) - 89-е место;

University of Calcutta - 143-е;

University of Mumbai - 151-е;

University ofPune - 191st.

Table 3

Structure of higher education in India

Category

Quantity

Central universities

43

"Recognized" universities

130

State public and private universities

345

Institutions of national importance

33

Colleges

31 324



Источник: Annual Report 2010/11. Ministry of Human Resource Development. Government of India - http://mhrd.gov.in; University Grants Commission - http:/ugc.ac.in


* Quacquarclly Simonds (QS) is a company that specializes in international education. It was founded by N. Cuaquarelli in 1990 and is headquartered in London.

page 33

Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Academic Ranking of World Universities, 2011) (Top 500 Universities)11:

Indian Institute of Science -301-е.

The World University Rankings, 2011 - 2012 (Top 400 Universities)12:

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay (HTB) - 301-е место.

However, these ratings should not be taken unambiguously, since they do not include some well-known and reputable higher education institutions, for example, Anna University and Coimbatore Institute of Technology in Tamil Nadu, etc.

Most secondary (according to our gradation) Indian educational institutions are affiliated or colleges of universities. There are also unitary universities that do not have subordinate colleges. 13

One of the reports of the National Commission of Knowledge states that the system of affiliated colleges, established and well-established 50 years ago, now does not meet the needs and prospects of the country's development. First of all, this is due to the inability to ensure the established quality standards of education. Major universities operate with a huge overload, and numerous colleges have limited opportunities for students to study.14 According to the Indian scholar N. Shailaya, it is almost impossible to introduce any innovations in the educational process in colleges, since they are forced to adhere to the curricula introduced by universities.15

The Indian Government has for many years restricted the ability of the states to develop innovation16. As a result, in the field of higher education, there was a situation where, in the conditions of excessive bureaucratic regulation, there was no rational planning and administration. Reforms in the country are generally very difficult to implement, and the higher education system in India is beyond the control of the government, especially in the part that relates to fundamental modernization.17

WHAT ARE GOVERNMENT SPENDING ON HIGHER EDUCATION?

According to the author, public investment in education has always been insufficient to achieve the goal set in India - "education for all". In 2010, the share of GDP in this sphere was 3.3%18, in China-3.6%19. The size of the shares roughly coincided. However, it should be borne in mind that India's GDP in 2010 was $1.68 trillion, while China's is more than 3 times larger - $5.93 trillion 20.

The share of spending on education in various states of India differs markedly from the national average. Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tripura, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands had relatively high expenditures (more than 5% of GDP) in 2009/10; Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Punjab, and Chhattisgarh had the lowest expenditures (less than 2%) .21

In 2009/10, the bulk of public spending on education was directed towards the development of primary education - about 50% of GDP, while only 12.76% of GDP was spent on higher education. For comparison, we present similar data for China: primary - 34%, secondary-38%, higher-21%, other-5%22.

STUDENTS AND THEIR SPECIALTIES

Proportion of young Indians (18-23 years old) the total number of young people of the same age enrolled in higher education increased from 12.5% in 2007/08 to 17.27% in 2009/10 (in 1980 this figure was only 5%).23. Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh had the highest enrollment rate of more than 1 million students; the highest percentage (more than half of the total number of accepted students) of women enrolled in higher education was recorded in the United States.

Table 4

Distribution of students by specialty, 2010/2011

Specialization

Total number of employees

% of the total number of employees

Art History

6,178,000

36,39

Natural science

3,127,000

18,42

Entrepreneurship/Management

2,905,000

17,11

Pedagogy

653,000

3,36

Engineering/Technology

2,862,000

16,86

Medicine

509,000

3,85

Agricultural industry

93,000

0,55

Veterinary Medicine

27,000

0,16

Jurisprudence

327,000

1,93

Others

233,000

1,37

Total

16,675,000

100,00



Источник: University Grants Commission, Annual Report, 2010/11 http://ugc.ac.in

page 34

Table 5

Number of vacant university teaching positions in 2007/2008

 

Number of positions

Completed positions

Vacant positions

Vacancy rate

positions(%)

Number of universities surveyed

Professor

2,469

1,367

1,102

44,63

45

Lecturer

4,506

2,194

2,312

51,31

46

Teacher

9,604

4,503

5,101

53,11

44

Total

16,579

8,064

8,515

51,36

 



Источник: Higher education in India: issues related to expansion, inclusiveness, quality and finance. University Grants Commission. 2008 - http://ugc.ac.in

in Goa, Kerala, Meghalaya, Punjab and several other states 24.

As shown in table 4, the largest share of enrollment is in the Departments of Art History, followed by Science, Entrepreneurship/Management, and Engineering/Technology. It is alarming that in India, where most of the population is employed in agriculture and related industries,the proportion of students enrolled in the relevant faculties is only 0.55% of the total number of applicants. In other words, the pattern of distribution of students by specialty indicates the need for a certain review of higher education policy.25

According to the report of the Indian University Grants Commission in the academic year 2010/11, the majority of students were enrolled in undergraduate programs (approximately 86%). The share of students enrolled in the master's program did not exceed 12%, and only 0.8% were preparing for a doctoral degree, while the opportunities for obtaining such a degree in the country are quite large.

The number of doctoral degrees (PhD*) awarded by various universities in India decreased from 14 thousand in 2008/09 to 11 thousand in 2009/10. In 2009/10, the leading positions in this indicator were occupied by art history (3 thousand) and natural science (4 thousand). These specialties account for 65% of the total number of doctoral degrees awarded. Among the technical specialties, the largest number of doctors of science are in the following fields: engineering/technology (1 thousand), agriculture (573), pedagogy (469) and medicine (337)26.

PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION

With the Indian Government unable to finance higher education in the right amounts, the number of private educational institutions in the country is growing. At the same time, they differ significantly from each other in the quality of training. This is due to the fact that most new private universities operate as commercial enterprises - they must "survive" for several years before they can count on material support from the government. 27

As a response to the excess of demand for higher education over supply, many private medical and technological colleges have appeared, which, receiving minimal support from the state, charge higher tuition prices than similar public colleges. These include over 160 private engineering colleges 28.

In 2006, the share of private higher education institutions in the Indian higher education system reached 63%, and in 2010 - already 80%29. In 2010/11, 1,211 new private colleges were established in India, for a total of 33,023,30. Thus, the growth in the number of universities and colleges is almost exclusively due to self-funded educational institutions. And state support was extended to universities where only 20% of students study.

For the sake of justice, I must say that some private universities have created a very positive reputation for themselves. For example, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, which received the status of "recognized" in 1964, is now one of the most prestigious educational institutions in India. Founded in 1953 as a medical school, Manipal University now has 24 colleges with 80,000 students. Its branches are open in Nepal, Malaysia, Dubai and the Caribbean Islands. Some major Indian industrial corporations (Reliance Industries, Mahindra and Mahindra, Vedanta Group) are planning to set up their own universities 31.

In the western and southern parts


* In Russian terminology, the scientific degree "PhD" may correspond to the degree of Candidate of Sciences.

page 35

India has educational clusters consisting entirely of private medical and engineering colleges. Private colleges have been most widely used since the early 1980s in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Maharashtra.32

Many Indian universities and colleges employ teachers who are "under contract" and do not have the necessary qualifications, and the main function of teaching is to prepare students for the annual exams. There are also many vacancies available at individual universities. According to Indian researcher A. Nayaram, today's young people do not seek the teaching profession at all; therefore, about 25% of vacancies in schools and colleges are not filled, and more than half of teachers do not have a higher education at all.33

The data shown in table 5 indicate that academic positions in Indian universities are only half filled on average, which is a cause for concern. Indian Institutes of Technology lack hundreds of highly qualified teachers. For example, at the Delhi Institute of Technology (Delhi ITT), 29% of teaching positions remain unfilled for a long time.34

There is a shortage of staff in national laboratories and industrial research centers. The number of Indian scientists and engineers involved in innovative developments is only 157 per 1 million population, while, for example, in the United States and Japan, this figure is 30 times (!) higher than 35. This is a problem related, among other things, to the migration of highly qualified labor from India.

The most talented Indians prefer to study in developed countries, where there are more attractive conditions that are deliberately created to attract promising researchers. In 2009 (the latest data for this year), more than 195,000 Indians studied in developed countries, including 101,000 in the United States, 34,000 in the United Kingdom, 26,000 in Australia, and 536,000 in New Zealand

This problem is particularly relevant for the information technology sector, in which India occupies one of the leading positions in the world (IT services exports from India are expected to reach $175 billion by 2020). and the sector's annual revenues will reach $225 billion 37).

In other words, on the one hand, there is a rapid development of the industry, and on the other hand, there is a real threat of losing competitive advantages due to a lack of specialists (many of whom successfully use their knowledge in the most developed countries).

UNEMPLOYMENT DUE TO LACK OF PERSONNEL

One of the most acute problems of the Indian education system is the discrepancy between the curriculum and the national needs for qualified personnel. Despite the huge "personnel shortage", unemployment among university graduates has increased significantly in recent decades.38

The crisis of higher education in India is related more to the quality of education than to the number of people who receive higher education. Thus, according to the National Association of Software and Service Companies (NASSCOM), only 10-15% of college graduates and 25% of graduates of technical institutes have sufficient qualifications to work in the field of information technology.

Currently, over 2.5 million people are employed in the IT business in India. specialists, of whom 1.5 million are residents of the southern part of the country, where the largest number of enterprises in the industry is concentrated, generating 60% of its revenues. Computer technology development is concentrated in cities such as Bangalore (5 thousand companies), Chennai (2.5 thousand) and Hyderabad (2 thousand).39.

It is no coincidence that more than fifteen hundred engineering colleges are located in the southern United States, where the demand for qualified personnel is growing particularly rapidly. However, as Chris Gopalakrishnan, co-chairman of Infosys, pointed out,"...quality of education... it is a deterrent." Only this company needs about 200 thousand rubles annually. new qualified employees, and these vacancies are filled with difficulty. " 40

We have to admit that for those sectors of the Indian economy where there is the most urgent need for highly qualified specialists, universities do not provide the necessary quality of their training. And many employees have to be trained at the company's expense. Some giant companies, such as IBM, Infosys and Wipro, not counting on the fact that the situation will improve in the foreseeable future, have created their own training (and in fact - finishing) centers.

SYSTEMIC CRISIS IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION

The reason why many graduates of Indian universities remain unemployed for a long time is that, although they receive legal certificates, they do not have systematic knowledge and practical skills in their specialty by the end of the course of study. Officially approved curricula often do not correspond to what is actually taught. What is taught in Indian universities can be described as traditional knowledge, arranged in the form of a curriculum and taken from various textbooks,

page 36

often outdated or of foreign origin 41.

However, the most prestigious universities in India, especially those that are part of the network of Indian Institutes of Technology and Indian Institutes of Management, are quite capable of maintaining high standards of teaching and developing creativity among academic staff. But only 15 to 20% of all students are enrolled in them. As a result, an increasing number of higher education institutions are shifting in their qualitative characteristics towards a new format of training - by analogy with the American so-called community colleges, focused on the average level of professional training with minimal public and private investment in the existing educational infrastructure.

In a situation where vocational training is completely separated from higher education, the Indian economy suffers doubly: due to the unsatisfactory quality of training in vocational and technical educational institutions, on the one hand, and the discrepancy between educational programs and market needs, on the other. Part of the reason why vocational education and training has not been developed is that it is traditionally designed for the poor.

In order to increase the level and prestige of the national higher education system, the Indian government plans to expand the access of foreign partners to the educational services market. In 2010, the Law on the activities of foreign educational institutions in India came into force. It is expected that foreign universities will provide their Indian partners with educational platforms, infrastructure, and introduce new ideas to curricula, methods, and innovative developments. There are already examples of such successful cooperation. For more than two years, the Indian Business School in Hyderabad and two American business schools (Kellogg School of Management, Wharton School) have been successfully cooperating. The London Business School 42 has recently joined this alliance.

At present, India has all the opportunities for successful modernization of the higher education system, if there is a corresponding political will that the country's authorities must show. Education should be among the most priority areas of socio-economic development - without this, it will be simply impossible to maintain the high growth rate of the state economy.


Zainulhhai A. 1 Securing India's place in the global economy // McKinsey (Quarterly. October 2007.

2 http://worklbank.org

Zainulhhai A. 3 Securing India's place...

Nayar A. 4 educating India//Nature. International weekly journal of science. April 7, 2011. Vol. 472 - http:/nature.com

5 Human Development Report 2011. I luman development statistical annex. United Nations Development Programme - http://hdr.undp. org/en/reports/global/hdr2011

6 education in India, 2007 - 08 // Participation and expenditure. National Sample Survey, 64th round - http://mospi.nic.in

Tilak J. 7 Financing higher education in India // I ligher education. 1991. Vol. 21, N 1,p. 83.

Alhach Ph. 8 Temples and world class universities // The Hindu. 2011 .July, 20.

9 QS World University Rankings - http://topuniversities.coTn

10 Ibid.

11 Academic Ranking of World Universities - hltp://shanghai-ranking.com

12 The World University Rankings, 2011 - 2012 -http://timeshighereducation.co.uk

Jayaram N. 13 I ligher education in India. Massification and change// Asian Universities: Historical Perspectives and Contemporary Challenges. Baltimore (MA), 2004, p. 89.

14 Towards a Knowledge Society. Report of National Knowledge Commission. October 2008 - http:/knowledgecommission.gov.in

Shailaja N. 15 I ligher education proves no match for India's booming economy // The chronicle of higher education. 2005, N 51.

Agarmal P. 16 Can I ligher education in India break from its past? // The Chronicle of Higher education. 2010, Jan. 24.

Altbach Ph. 17 The dilemma of change in Indian higher education // I ligher education. 1993, N 26, p. 5.

18 http://worldbank.org

19 http://china.org.cn

20 http://worldbank.org

21 http://education.usibc.com/wp-conlent/uploads/2010/09/EY-FICCI-report09-Making-Indian- Higher-Education-future-Ready.pdf

22 UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Education (all levels) profile -Chinal - http://unesco.org

Nanda P. 23 More students opting for higher education -httpVlivcminl.coni

24 UCC Annual Report, 2009 - 10 - http://ugc.ac.in

25 University Grants Commission, Annual Report, 2011 - 2011 -http://ugc.ac.in

26 University Grants Commission... - http://ugc.ac.in

Tilak J. 27 Financing higher education in India // Higher education. 1991. Vol. 21, N 1,p. 92.

28 Ibid., p. 93.

Goswami R. 29 Learning higher education lessons from China -hltp:// universityworldnew.com

30 University Grants Commission... - http://ugc.ac.in

Altbach Ph. 31 The giants awake: the present and future of higher education systems in China and India - http://oecd.org

Gupta A. 32 International trends and private higher education in India// International Journal of Educational Management. 2008. Vol. 22 (6), p. 578.

Narayam A. 33 Educating India - http://nature.com

Salmi J. 34 The challenge of establishing world-class universities. The World Bank. 2009 - http://worldbank.org

35 Towards faster and more inclusive growth. An approach towards 11th five year plan. Government of India. Planning Commission. New Delhi. 2006 - http:/planningcommission.nic.in

36 The Global educational digest, 2010. UNESCO - http://uis.unesco.org

37 National Association of Software and Services Companies - http:/nasscom.org

Jayaram N. 38 I ligher education in India.., p. 95.

39 http://tiniesofndia.com

Gupta S. 40 Uick of education, manpower will hold India back. We are seeing it in our industry. The Indian lixpress. April 10, 2010 - http:/indianexpress.com

Altbach Ph. 41 The dilemma of change.., p. 15.

42 India and the knowledge economy. Leveraging strengths and opportunities. World Bank report. No. 31267-IN. April 2005.


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