Libmonster ID: IN-1345
Author(s) of the publication: E. V. Antonets

The manuscript tradition of Horace contains several hundred codices (1), but its study is traditionally limited to the study of the text of a small group of early manuscripts, of which thirteen manuscripts are usually considered necessary(2).

I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to the employees of the Russian National Welfare Agency, first of all N. A. Elagina and M. G. Logutova, for their participation in my work.

(1) Hilda Buttenwieser (Popular Authors of the Middle Ages) / / Speculum. A Journal of Mediaeval Studies. 1942. V. XVII. N 1. p. 50-55) numbered about 300 manuscripts of Horace, of which 250 were written before 1300: "Although I have tabulated close to three hundred manuscripts" (p. 54). In Birger Munk-Olsen's catalog (Munk Olsen B. L'etude des manuscripts classiques latins aux XIe et XIIe siecle. P. T. I. Catalog des manuscripts classiques latins copies du IXe au XIIe siecle. Apicius-Juvenal. 1982; T. II. Livius -Vitruvius. Florileges - Essais de plume. 1985; T. III. Pt 1. Les classiques dans les bibliotheques medievales. 1987; T. III. Pt. 2. Addenda et corrigenda. Tables. 1989), which remains the only complete catalog of manuscripts of the Roman classics written up to and including the twelfth century, includes 269 Horace manuscripts. The number of Horace's manuscripts in the catalogues of medieval libraries is also large; see Manitius M. Handschriften antiker Autoren in mittelalterlichen Bibliothekskatalogen. Lpz, 1935. S. 55-61.

(2) Tarrant R.J. Horace // Texts and Transmission. A Survey of the Latin Classics / Ed. L.D. Reynolds. Oxf., 1983. P. 182-186.

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The preference given by modern publishers of Horace to the earliest and best manuscripts(3) is understandable and quite fair, but it significantly impoverishes the possibility of studying the manuscript tradition, which is already hindered by the fact that all Horace's manuscripts are not fully cataloged (4). The use of less studied manuscripts seems to be necessary both for the further development of Horace's textual theory and the study of Horace's commentary, and for cataloging all extant manuscripts of ancient authors[5].

The subject of this article is one of the manuscripts that make up the collection of manuscripts of Roman classics of the Department of Manuscripts of the Russian National Library (6), namely, the manuscript of the works of Horace of the XII century, which has the code Cl. lat. o. v. 4 and belongs to the collection of Peter Petrovich Dubrovsky(7). Although this code has long been put into scientific circulation, it still remains insufficiently studied both in paleographic and philological terms. Its text, which reveals notable readings, has never been published in its entirety, and we do not find a detailed description of the codex in any of the catalogues that take it into account. The purpose of this article is to compile a detailed description of the manuscript, based both on the results of the author's own research and on the conclusions reached by modern science regarding this code.

The St. Petersburg manuscript of Horace is described in catalogues, mentioned in articles and monographs, and its readings were used in critical editions of Horace.

Catalogues of the Russian National Library. The first printed catalog of Latin manuscripts of the Imperial Public Library was published in 1910 by Antonio Sterk(8). The catalog contains descriptions of largely randomly selected manuscripts (141 in total) belonging to the period from the fifth to the thirteenth centuries. Horace's manuscript Cl. lat. o. v. 4 in catalog A. Eraser didn't enter.

In 1929, the first part of the catalog of Latin manuscripts of the Public Library, compiled by Olga Antonovna Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya(9), was published; it covered the manuscripts of the V-VII centuries. The second part of the catalog, published in 1965, includes manuscripts of the VIII-IX centuries.(10) The Cl. lat. o. v. 4 code was not included in this catalog as a later version.

(3) See Q. Horati Flacci opera / Ed. by S. Borzsak. Lpz, 1984; Q. Horati Flacci opera / Ed. D.R. Shackleton Bailey. Stuttgart, 1985. The most complete edition of Horace in terms of the number of manuscripts involved, which has not lost its significance, remains the edition of Otto Keller and Alfred Holder (Q. Horati Flacci opera / Rec. O. Keller, A. Holder. 2 ed. V. I. Lpz, 1899; V. II. Jena, 1925), which uses readings from about 60 manuscripts.

(4) B. Munch-Olsen's catalog contains only manuscripts from before the twelfth century, and there is still no catalog that includes manuscripts created after the twelfth century.

(5) The largest libraries in the world are working to compile catalogues of Roman authors ' manuscripts stored in their collections. For example, in 1982, the publication of the catalog of manuscripts of Latin classics of the Vatican Library (Bibliotheque Vatican. Les manuscripts classiques latins de la Bibliotheque Vatican / Ed. E. Pellegrin et al. P. T. I. 1975; Vol. II (1). 1978; Vol. II (2). 1982), which, along with a detailed description of each manuscript, gives the most complete information about its history, as well as facsimile images of individual sheets in total, the catalog includes about 3000 manuscripts. It seems very relevant to conduct similar work in national collections.

(6) Until 1992 - State Public Library named after M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin.

(7) For literature on P. P. Dubrovsky and his collection, see Fonkich B. P. P. Dubrovsky and the beginning of collecting Greek manuscripts in Russia / / VV. 1992. Vol. 53. p. 125 el.; Employees of the Russian National Library-figures of Science and Culture. Biographical Dictionary, Vol. I. 1795-1917. SPb., 1995. pp. 203-205; Thompson P. Z. Biography of a Library: The Western European Manuscript Collection of Peter P. Dubrovskii in Leningrad // The Journal of Library History. Fall 1984. V. 19. N 4. P. 477-503.

(8) StaerkA. Les manuscrits latins du V au XIIIe siecle conserves a la Bibliotheque Imperiale de Saint-Petersbourg. T. 1-2. S.-Petersbourg, 1910.

(9) The oldest Latin manuscripts of the Public Library, Part 1. Manuscripts of the V - VII centuries / Ed. by O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya, L., 1929.

(10) The oldest Latin manuscripts of the GPB. Catalog of manuscripts of the VIII-early IX centuries / Comp. by O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya. L? 1965. In 1991, a revised and expanded edition of this catalog was published: Les anciens

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Nevertheless, O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya, while working on compiling a catalog of all the Latin manuscripts of the State Library of Fine Arts, made a description of this manuscript. The catalog card written by her is kept in the internal catalog of the Department of Manuscripts of the Russian National Library and is the only source containing an analysis of the binding of the manuscript and the later litters contained in it. This analysis, which is by no means exhaustive, is still the most complete. The text and glosses of the manuscript are attributed by O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya to the XI-XII centuries. When analyzing the text, she uses only the I.-K. edition. Orelli (Berolini, 1882) also finds it difficult to identify the works that conclude the code, which she unites under the common name uita ("Nous n'avons pas identifie cette uita").

The next catalog of Latin manuscripts of the Public Library, compiled by Alexander de Laborde, was published in 1936-1938. [11] This catalog describes only illuminated manuscripts; the codex of interest is not considered in it, since it is not illuminated.

The manuscript, as a later one, is also not included in the catalog of Elias Avery Lowe(12), which reflects Leningrad Latin manuscripts only V-VIII centuries.

Latest catalog of Latin Manuscripts of the State Public Library(13 )It is the only printed catalog of the library that provides a description of the manuscript Cl. lat. o. v. 4. This catalog is an accounting catalog, so its tasks did not include a complete description of the manuscripts; it contains only a concise description and the main bibliography(14). The catalog does not distinguish Expositio metrica (ff. 85 v - 87 v) as a separate work and does not separate the two biographies of Horace, and the bibliography does not include critical editions of Horace that use readings of the manuscript and, moreover, currently needs significant additions.

Critical editions of Horace's text. The St. Petersburg Codex Cl. lat. o. v. 4 was used twice in Horace's printed works. For the first time - in the third edition of Johann-Caspar Orelli, published in 1852 by Johann-Georg Baiter(15). The manuscript dates from the tenth century; its readings are used only in the second volume of the edition. The source for J.-G. Baiter is a collation [16] compiled at his request by Eduard Gasparovich von Muralt, librarian of the Imperial Public Library [17].

Readings of the Codex Cl. lat. o. v. 4 are also used in the second edition by Otto Keller and Alfred Holder (18). O. Keller cites readings of the manuscript only in the Epistles and in the Poetical Art, and in the preface to the edition he notes that

manuscrits latins de la bibliotheque Publique Saltykov-Scedrin de Leningrad. VIIIe - debut IXe siecle. Catalogue etabli par Olga A. DobiaS-Roidestvenskaja et Wsevolod W. Bakhtine. P., 1991.

(11) Laborde A. de. Les principaux manuscrits a peintures conserves dans 1'ancienne Bibliotheque Imperiale Publique de Saint-Petersbourg. T. 1-2. P., 1936-1939.

(12) Codices Latini Antiquiores / Ed. E.A. Lowe. Pt XI. Hungary, Luxembourg, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, the United States and Jugoslavia. Oxf., 1966.

(13) Latin manuscripts of the 5th-12th centuries of the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library. Brief description for the Consolidated catalog of manuscripts stored in the USSR. Part 1 / Comp. E. V. Bernadskaya, T. P. Voronova, S. O. Vyalova. L., 1983.

(14) См. там же. С. 59, N 256: Cl. lat. 0. v. 4. HORATIUS FLACCUS QUINTUS. Carmina (f. 1-33); Ars poetica (f. 33-39); Epodi (f. 39-15); Carmen saeculare (f. 46); Epistulae (f. 47-62); Sermones (f. 62-84); PS. ACRO. Vita Horatii Flacci (f. 84 v.-87). XII-XIII centuries. France. 88 liters, 221 x 102 mm. Brown initials. Categories - 204 Romanova Street.

(15) Horatius Flaccus Quintus ... Recensuit atque interpretatus est J.G. Orellius, 3 ed. cur. J.G. Baiterus. Turici, 1852.

(16) J.G. Baiteri praefatio editionis tertiae, p. VII: "Codicis Petropolitani (p) saec. X collatio, quam debeo insigni humanitati civis nostri doctissimi, Eduardi de Muralto, August. Caes. Ross. Bibliothecarii, sero ad me pervenit, ut eius lectiones alteri volumini reservandae essent".

(17) See about him: Employees of the Russian National Library ... T. I. Muralt Eduard von (Eduard Gasparovich) (1808-1895).

(18) Q. Horati Flacci opera... V. I-II. See note above.

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the codex was written in the 14th century and comes from the abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres (19), without specifying the source of this information. Modern researchers (see below) almost unanimously date the manuscript to the end of the XII century, so the dating of O. Keller (XIV century) is erroneous, and the publisher's opinion about the Saint-Germain origin of the manuscript is also not confirmed: it lacks the Saint-Germain number, as well as any other marks that would indicate the Codex Saint-Germain belongs to.- To the Abbey of Germain (20).

Russian articles and monographs. In Russian printed publications, the manuscript Cl. lat. o. v. 4 was first mentioned in 1973 by V. F. Petrova (21). The brief report on the manuscript(22) given in the article is based mainly on the above-mentioned catalog card of O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya; the manuscript dates back to the 12th century. The author of the article does not take into account the publications that use reading this manuscript and admits some inaccuracies in the description of the text [23].

The codex of interest is also mentioned in V. L. Romanova's book on the handwritten book and Gothic writing in France in the XIII-XIV centuries.(24) She dates the manuscript to the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth centuries. As for the letter used to write the manuscript, V. L. Romanova refers it to the type of "sharp" handwriting (25), which "along with round ones are found in codices created in scriptoriums in Northern and Central France and mainly in books of scientific, philosophical, and historical content"; (note 6 is given to these words: "GPB, Cl. lat. O. v. 4, XII c. (Horace. Works); GPB, lat. Q. v. IV, 3, late XII c. etc.") (26). It is this dating that is accepted in the latest catalog of Latin manuscripts of the GPB.

Foreign catalogs. The only foreign printed catalog that takes into account the St. Petersburg Code Cl. lat. o. v. 4 is the already mentioned catalog

(19) Ibid. V. I. Praefatio. P. XL-XLI: Pro libri о nepote, ut hac similitudine utamur, codex Petropolitanus accipiendus est, quern in epistulis tantum et arte poetica adhibere placuit. Scriptus est saec. XIV in membranis formae octavae; sunt folia 88, in singulis paginis 48 fere versus; continentur carmina, ars poetica, epodi, carmen saeculare, epistolae, sermones, vita Horatiana, expositio metrica. Oriundus est e monasterio sancti Gennani in Pratis. Exemplar originarium, unde ct et x ct Petrop. in carm., epod., a.p. olim descripti sunt, seriem habuerat ordinum III et I et indolem stirpis 8'. Secundo loco lectiones I ordinis, tertio denique loco, idque in carminibus, epodis, arte poetica, etiam II ordinis lectiones accedunt. In sermonibus autem atque epistulis secundi ordinis adeo praevalere uidemus indolem, ut facere non possumus, quin hie quidem secundum ordinem pro fundamento accipiamus. Ex a aut \ Petrop. non descriptum esse docemur a. p. 171: omnis Petrop. recte, omnes falso о x, cf. gramm. Aufsatze 295.

(20) The Paris Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Pres (Saint-Germain-des-Pres) owned a significant part of the manuscripts collected by P. P. Dubrovsky (see Voronova T. P. P. Dubrovsky and Saint-Germain manuscripts / / Books. Archives. Autographs. Reviews, posts, and publications. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library. Leningrad. M., 1973. pp. 101-114), which, apparently, gave O. Keller reason to believe that the manuscript under study also comes from this abbey.

(21) Petrova V. F. Antique authors in Latin manuscripts of the State Library of Fine Arts. Archives. Autographs... pp. 169-173.

(22 )" The most complete parchment list of the XII century from the collection of P. P. Dubrovsky (Cl. lat. O. v. 4) contains 4 books of odes by Horace, the poem "Ars poetica", "Epodes", "Carmen saeculare", two books of letters and two books of speeches (sic), with marks of the XIV B. On L. 87 vol. the inscription is made: "in isto volumine continentur Juvenalis, (H)oratius in odis, in epodon, in poetica, in sermonibus, in epistolis cum metris. Intelligitur Juvenalem abscissum esse". Obviously, it was separated when binding. On the cover - the contents of the collection and a poem in French, praising Horace, written in the hand of P. P. Dubrovsky. There are no references to its use in the collection, and none of the critical publications available to us refers to it, but, according to O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya, its glosses deserve attention."

(23)" Two books of speeches "instead of" two books of satires"; the phrase Intelligitur Juvenalem abscissum esse is not in the text of the manuscript.

(24) Romanova V. L. Handwritten book and Gothic writing in France in the XIII-XIV centuries. Based on the materials of the collection of handwritten books of the Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library, Moscow, 1975, p. 86: "The increased interest in Roman and Late Antique writers and poets in the XII - XIII centuries is reflected in the list of works of Horace 32... (32-GPB Cl. lat. O. v. 4)".

(25) Ibid., pp. 114-115: "2) A small angular letter with elongated letters. The verticals of the letters, which are somewhat thickened at the top, narrow at the bottom and end with thin oblique strokes that enhance the overall impression of angular writing. The semicircles of b, p, q, and h also have "pointed" shapes."

(26) Ibid., pp. 114-115.

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B. Munch-Olsen dates the St. Petersburg manuscript to the second half of the twelfth century, considers Germany to be the place of its writing, and gives a more complete description of it than the GPB catalog [28], but also does not take into account the critical publications of I.-K. Munch-Olsen. Orelli and O. Keller, using readings of the manuscript, and does not include in the description of the analysis glosses (limited to indicating their presence), binding and later litters. At the same time, B. Munch-Olsen, in contrast to Russian researchers, considers the works located at the end of the codex in a more differentiated way and notes those parts of odes that contain neumas in the St. Petersburg Codex (a type of medieval musical notation [29]). However, it does not list all non-summed fragments, omitting carm, 1.33.1-5 (f. 10 v), carm. III.28.1-3 (f. 26 v), carm. IV. 2. 1-2 (f. 27 v -28 g), carm. IV. 8. 1-8 (f. 30 v) and epod. 1,1-7 (f. 39 r).

Foreign articles and monographs. The manuscript under study is mentioned in the work of Klaus Sievert "Old High German Glosses to Horace" (30). Using the data of O. Keller's edition, K. Sievert not only accepts the wrong dating of the manuscript (XIV century), but also makes an incorrect conclusion about the origin of another, close St. Petersburg manuscript codex Sangallensis oppidanus 312 (s. X, membranaceus, st.u. O. Keller, N 178 according to the catalog of B. Munch-Olsen). The textual proximity of the St. Petersburg ("Leningrad") and St. Gallen (a) codices revealed by O. Keller allowed K. Sievert to assume their common origin, and O. Keller's information about the Saint-Germain origin of the St. Petersburg manuscript allowed him to conclude that the St. Gallen Codex also originates from Saint-Germain-des-Pres(31). But in the text of the St. Petersburg Codex there is no evidence of its belonging to Saint-Germain Abbey, which makes the conclusion of K. Sievert devoid of grounds.

The Codex CL lat. o. v. 4 is one of the few Horace lists that has preserved musical notation. The neumas of this manuscript are analyzed by Yves-Francois Riou in his study of the neumed manuscripts of the Latin classics[32]. He dates the codex to the end of the 12th century(33), and refers the Neumae to the Franco - Aquitanian type, namely, to the type common in the area of the cities of Nevers and Autun(34).

Thus. The St. Petersburg Horace Code has been studied by specialists in various scientific disciplines, but it still does not have a detailed description that would take into account the results of these versatile studies. The best description of the manuscript is still found in the catalog of B. Munch-Olsen, but, as already noted, it is, nevertheless, in many respects unsatisfactory. The general disadvantage of published descriptions of the manuscript is that, on the one hand, they do not contain an analysis of the glosses and text of the manuscript, which is important for philological research, and on the other -

(27) Munk Olsen. L'etude...

(28) Ibid. Vol. III. Pt 2. P. 68-69.

(29) See about neuma articles Neuma (David Hiley) and Neumatic notations (Solange Corbin, Milos Velimirovic, Mireille Helffer) in The Grove Encyclopedia (The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians / Ed. Stanley Sadie. V. 1-20. L., 1980).

(30) Siewert K. Die Althochdeutsche Horazglossierung. Studien zum Althochdeutsch. Bd 8. Gottingen, 1986.

(31) Ibid. S. 387: "Die Angaben zur Herkunft der Handschrift (St. Gallen, Stadt B. 312) schwanken. Aufgrund der Textidentitat mit einer sicher zuweisbaren Handschrift des 14. Jahrhunderts ist zunachts aufeine Herkunft aus St.-Germain-des-Pres (3516 - Man vergleiche Е. Chatelain, Paleographie des classiques latins, I, S. 26, der sich auf 0. Keller bezieht; 0. Keller - A. Holder, Q. Horati Flacci Opera, I, S. XL f. (Petropolitanus) geschlossen worden. A. Bruckner (3517 - Scriptoria medii aevi helvetica. III, S. 45 und A. 228. Sieh auch B. Munk Olseo, Catalogue des manuscrits classiques latins, S. 494.) hat demgegeniiber St. Gallen als Entstehungsort der Hs. wahrscheinlich gemacht".

(32) Riou Y.-F. Chronologic et provenance des manuscrits classiques latins neumes // Revue d'histoire des textes. T. XXI. 1991. P. 77-113'.

(33) Ibid. P. 106: "С. 85-5 - LENINGRAD, Gosudarstvennaja publ. Bibl. im. М.Е. Saltykova-Shchedrina, class. lat. 0 v 4 (XIIe s. ex.) France, region de Nevers-Autun (Allemagne?)".

(34) Ibid. P. 90: "Puis parmi des notations diverses, on citera les neumes aquitains et francais d'un manuscrit d'Horace C. 167 et la notation franco-aquitaine dont 1'axe d'ecriture rappelle la region de Nevers-Autun d'un autre manuscrit d'Horace: С. 85-5".

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information about volumes, bindings, and later litters found in the codex that are the subject of musicological and paleographic research is not included. In addition, none of the descriptions reflect the fact that the readings of the manuscript were used twice in critical editions of Horace.

In writing the codex, we set ourselves the task of making up for these shortcomings as much as possible, in particular to determine the nature of the glosses contained in the codex and to identify the works that follow Horace's text in the codex and occupy pages 84 v to 87 V. The classification of these works is the weak point of all descriptions of the codex, probably because they, as well as numerous glosses of the manuscript, were not subjected to philological research. Russian researchers have combined all the works adjacent to the text of Horace under the general title Vita Horatii, and B. Munch-Olsen, quite correctly dividing them into five sections: (1) f. 84 v: Ps. Aero uita Hor. (Vita eiusdem); (2) f. 85 r-v: uita Hor. et (3) note de metrique; (4) f. 85 v - 87 r: note de metrique (Incip. metra); (5) f. 87 r - v: note de metrique (De finalibus metris), refused to identify them(35).

The experience of studying the manuscript allows us, taking into account the work of other researchers, to offer the following description of the St. Petersburg Codex: St. Petersburg, Russian National Library, Cl. lat. O. v. 4, Q. Horati Flacci opera.

Parchment. 88 sheets (11 quaternions). 22.1 x 10.2. 1 column, 48 rows.

The binding is cardboard of the XVI century, brown leather, embossed on the upper and lower covers of the binding, the safety of the binding is poor, there are traces of the previous firmware on the spine. Fasteners are earlier, bent inwards by 8-10 mm.

The letter is small, "sharp"(36).

The ink is brown, initials are brown, and the headings are meerkat.

End of the 12th century, France.

F. 1 г - 33 v: carmina (Quinti Horatii Flacci carminum liber incipit Ad Mecenatem) - (Liber carminum Flacci explicit).

F. 33 v - 39 r: ars poetica (P. Flacci Horatii liber de poetria incipit) - (Horatii Flacci liber de poetria explicit).

F. 39 r - 45 v: epodi (Incipit epodon id est clausularis ad Mecenatem) - (Horatii explicit epodon).

F. 45 v - 46 v: carmen saeculare (Incipit carmen saeculare) - (Explicit carmen saeculare).

F. 46 v - 62 r: epistulae (Quinti Horatii epistolarum liber primus incipit) - (Horatii Flacci liber .II. epistolarum explicit).

F. 62 v - 84 v: sermones (Incipit sermonum lib. .1. ad Mecenatem) - (Horatii Flacci sermonum liber .II. explicit).

F. 84 v: Pseudacronis uita Horatii (Vita eiusdem Horatius Quintus Flaccus praecone patre natus - humatus et conditus est in extremis aesquliis iuxta mecenatis tumultum)(37).

F. 85 r - v: e Suetonio uita Horatii (Horatius pro dubium est utrum apulus an etiam uenusinus fuerit - sed acron melius)(38).

(35) Munk Olsen. L'etude... T. III. Pt 2. P. 68-69.

(36) Among the dated manuscripts collected in the catalogue des manuscripts en ecriture latine portant des indications de date, de lieu ou de copiste / Par Ch. Samaran et R. Marichal. T. I-VI. P., 1959-1981), we found no analogues to the letter of the St. Petersburg Codex Horace. This probably means that the manuscript was created in a relatively closed and isolated scriptorium.

(37) Folio 85 v contains the text of the biography of Horace, which is the first of two biographies of Horace published by O. Keller in the publication of the Scholia of Pseudo-Akron (Pseudacronis scholia in Horatium vetustiora / Rec. Otto Keller. V. I. Schol. A V in Carmina et Epodos. Editio stereotypa editionis primae (1902). Stutgardiae, 1967, p. 1-3), with two inserts (quapropter-assurgit and cum patre-uicit ingenio) from the second of these two biographies (ibid., p. 2-3) and an ending (natus VI idus decembris-iuxta mecenatis tumultum) from the life of Horace, attributed to Suetonius and published by Fr. Klingner (Q. Horati Flacci opera. Tertium recognouit Fridericus Klingner. Lipsiae, 1959. P. Г-4*).

(38) Sheet 86 r opens the second life of Horace, which is not separated from the first by a special title and is marked only with an initial. Its text generally coincides with that of E Svetoni vita Horati,

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F. 85 v: fragmentum metricum 1 (In carmine suo X et VIIII varietatibus metrorum usus est -peon proseutice laudatiue uel deprecatorie)(39).

F. 85 v - 87 r: expositio metrica (Incipit metra)(40).

F. 87 г- v: fragmentum metricum 2 (De finalibus metris)(41).

Glosses. Marginal and interlinear glosses, most of which are written in the same hand as the main text of the manuscript, but more finely; some glosses are written in a different handwriting. A significant part of the glosses (almost all interlinear glosses) are excerpts from the Pseudo-Akron scholia and coincide with the text of the scholia published by O. Keller(42). The remaining glosses (mostly marginal) are medieval commentaries, many of which are based on Pseudo-Akron interpretations.

Notation. The following fragments of Horace's odes are provided with neumes: carm. I. 1. 1-5; carm. I. 2. lt (f. 1 r); carm. I. 3. 1 (f. 1 v); carm. I. 4. lt (f. 2 r); carm. I. 5. 1-4; carm. I. 6. lt; carm. I. 7. 1-2 (f. 2 v); carm. I. 7. 15-18; carm. I. 8. 1-2 (f. 3 r); carm. I. 9. 1-4 (f. 3 r-v); carm. I. 10. 1-2; carm. I. 11. 1-2 (f. 3 v); carm. I. 33. 1-5 (f. U v); carm. III. 28. 1-3 (f. 26 v); carm. IV. 2. 1-2 (f. 27 v - 28 r); carm. IV. 8. 1-8 (f. 30 v); epod. 1,1- 7 (f. 39 r). Neumas of Franco-Aquitaine (near the cities of Nevers and Autun), XII c. The St. Petersburg Codex is the richest source of non-rhymed fragments of odes among all the known iotiated manuscripts of Horace[43].


XIV century - headings made by surik in the margins of the codex:

F. 1 r - liber carminum / Horatii Flacci

F. 33 v - oratius in poetria

F. 39 r - incipit epodon

F. 46 v - in epistolis

F. 62 v - sermonum liber

F. 84 r - in isto uolumine continentur iuuenalis, oratius in odis, in epodon, in poetria, in sermonibus, in epistolis cum metris(44).

published by F. Kliagner, differing from the biography of Suetonius by the ending (commentati sunt-acronymius) taken from Vita 2 (see O. Keller's edition, p. 1-2), two inserts, one of which (in principio canninis-summum bonum est) - from Vita 1 (see O. Keller's edition, p. 3) and text variants.

(39) The fragment is not separated from the biography either by a special title or by an interval. The first part of this fragment (in carmine suo X et VIIII uarietatibus metrorum usus est...) contains a brief statement about the size of Horace, in general terms reminiscent of the ending of the first biography of Horace, published by O. Keller (p. 2: decem et nouem modos metrorum in carmine suo composuit...). The second part of the fragment contains a list of genre-related works. characteristics of Horace's odes with translations. Similar lists are also preserved in some other manuscripts, in particular, in codex Monacensis Latinus 375 (s. XI-XII), where they also adjoin the life of Horace. Wilhelm Christ considers them excerpts from some late antique treatise devoted to genre characteristics of Horace's lyrical works (Christ W. Horatiana: Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-philologischen und historischen Classe der k. b.Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen. Jg 1893.1. Bd. S. 57-152. Exp. 100-104).

(40) This text coincides with the Expositio Metrica published by O. Keller, providing better readings in some places.

(41) The fragment is a list of individual dimensions with brief explanations.

(42) Pseudacronis scholia in Horatium vetustiora / Rec. Otto Keller. V. I-II. Editio stereotypa editionis primae (1902, 1904). Stutgardiae, 1967.

(43) The I.-F. study. Riu has shown that there are currently 24 known manuscripts in which Horace's odes are provided with neumes. In all these manuscripts, I.-F. Riou counted 34 non-composed fragments of odes. On average, one manuscript contains one or two annotated passages, with the exception of codex Parisinus latinus 7979 (Xl-XII centuries, p. 144 according to the catalog of B. Munch-Olsen), which has 8 non-annotated fragments, and the St. Petersburg Codex, which has 17 such fragments, i.e. twice as many as in Paris. At the same time, 4 passages that have notation in the St. Petersburg manuscript are also provided with neumas in some other manuscripts, and the remaining 13 fragments have neumas exclusively in the St. Petersburg Codex. The neumes of this code undoubtedly require special research and publication.

(44)It is clear from the final heading that in the fourteenth century the text of Juvenal was placed before Horace's text in the manuscript. Although O. A. Dobiash-Rozhdestvenskaya believes that the current binding of the codex is quite large enough to contain a list of Juvenile's works, it should be taken into account that Juvenile has 16 satires, which in total occupy 3,837 lines; and since the manuscript has 48 lines on one sheet,

page 141

XVI century-numbering in the upper corner of each sheet of the codex, containing the abbreviated name of the work of Horace, located on this sheet: Car. I; Car. 2; Car. 3; Car. 4; Ars p.; Epod.; Carm. S.; Ep.; Serm.; an inscription commenting on the codex division of the seventh ode of the first book into two separate odes: F. 3 g-hanc oden neoterici a superiore noa) e ad finem hujus libri numerandae sunt; notes on the back of a protective paper sheet glued to the lower cover of the binding: Lecatores ser. 2. satyr. 8. Salmura ibid.

All litters dating back to the 16th century are written in the same handwriting(45).

XVI/-XVI II centuries-owner's inscription (erased(46)):

F. 87v-Exlibris...

XIX century

1. Litters made by P. P. Dubrovsky(47):

turnover of the upper cover of the binding:

table of contents of the manuscript Horatii flacci Opera. / Carminum Libri 4. / Ars Poetica. / Epodon. / Carmen Seculare. / Epistolarum Lib. П. / Orationum Lib. II. Siue Satyra. / Vita Horatii prosaica, signed: Dubrowsky and excerpt from Voltaire's Epitre a Horace:

Avec lui l'on apprend a souffrir 1'indigence,

A jouir sagement d'Une honnete opulence,

A sortir d'une vie ou triste ou fortunee,

En rendant grace aux Dieux de nous 1'avoir donnee,

F. 1 r - Ex Musaeo Petri Dubrowsky,

F. 87 v - Ex Musaeo Petri Dubrowsky

then all of Juvenal's satires would have taken up 80 pages (= 40 sheets or 5 notebooks). It is doubtful that the current binding can accommodate five more notebooks. The clasps of the codex, on the contrary, were clearly designed for a larger volume of the codex and for the manuscript in its present form were too large and therefore were bent. Probably, the clasps remained from the former binding of the manuscript, which included the text of Juvenal. Most likely, this text was separated during binding in the XVI century and subsequently lost, since among the manuscripts included in the catalog of B. Munch-Olsen, we did not find the code of Juvenal, consisting of 40 sheets, each of which would have 48 lines; fragments of such a code are not attested.

(45) These comments attest to the high level and competence of their author. Among the numerous glosses of the St. Petersburg manuscript, he singled out two Late Latin or medieval Latin words (lecatores and salmura) - they are rare and, perhaps, still not taken into account by lexicographers. The word lecator (in the form leccator) appears in the meaning of" talker " (scurra vanam loquelam proferens) in Danish sources (see Gertz. Vitae sanctorum danorum (Libellus I, II et III) 318, 5, 10), which probably can become a support for determining the place of writing of the codex.

(46) On the last page of the codex (87 v) there are traces of the owner's erased inscription. The general character of the handwriting allows us to attribute it to the end of the XVII-beginning of the XVIII century. and to assume that the inscription contained the name of the last location of the studied manuscript, from where it came to P. P. Dubrovsky. It is unlikely that the inscription was destroyed by the collector himself, since he usually kept the marks of monasteries and individuals who previously owned the manuscripts of his collection. Unfortunately, the inscription is not yet legible, but its presence in the manuscript should not be ignored.

(47) While working on the design of his manuscript collection, P. P. Dubrovsky did not ignore the Horace Codex. To the owner's inscriptions and table of contents (the usual components of his work on manuscripts), he added an excerpt from a famous poem by Voltaire, while slightly modifying the text of Voltaire, replacing toi with lui and omitting two lines. The entire passage reads as follows::

Avec toi l'on apprend a souffrir 1'indigence,

A jouir sagement d'une honnete opulence,

A vivre avec soi-meme, a servir ses amis,

A se moquer un peu de ses sorts ennemis,

A sortir d'une vie ou triste ou fortunee

En rendant grace aux Dieux de nous l'avoir donee.

См. Stemplinger Е. Horaz im Urteil der Jahrhunderte // Das Erbe der AIten. Schriften liber Wesen und Wirkung der Antike. II. Reihe. Ht 5. Lpz, 1921. S. 93 f.

page 142

2. Notes made by the Abbe de Grandillier (48) when checking the manuscripts of the collection of P. P. Dubrovsky(49):

second numbering of the manuscript pages: Arabic numerals in the upper corner of each sheet next to the letter numbering mentioned above;

Grandidier's receipt on the last page of the manuscript:

F.87 v - Се manuscrit contient quatrevingt huit feuiletts 1'abbe de Grandidieu.

3. I. Bychkov's receipt (50)on a paper security sheet at the end of the manuscript: "This manuscript has eight-and-twenty-eight (88) leaves, one (1) scrap of paper at the beginning, and one sheet of paper glued to the top cover of the binding. Bybl. I. Bychkov'.

He also wrote the code code in his own hand on a security sheet at the beginning of the manuscript.

Publications. Horatius Fl. Q. ...Recensuit atque interpretatus est J.G. Orellius, 3 ed. cur. J. G. Baiterus. Turici, 1852; Q. Horati Flacci opera. Recensuerunt 0. Keller et A. Holder. 2 ed. V. I. Lpz, 1899; V. II. Jena, 1925.

Bibliography. Petrova V. F. Antique authors in Latin Manuscripts of the State Library of Fine Arts. Archives. Autographs. Reviews, posts, and publications. M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Public Library. Leningrad, Moscow, 1973, pp. 169-173; Romanova VL. Handwritten book and Gothic writing in France in the XIII-XIV centuries. Based on the materials of the collection of handwritten books of the State Public Library named after M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin. Moscow, 1975. pp. 86, 114-115, 204; Latin manuscripts of the V-XII centuries of the State Public Library named after M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin. Brief description for the Consolidated catalog of manuscripts stored in the USSR. Part 1 / Comp. E. V. Bernadskaya, T. P. Voronova, S. O. Vyalova. L., 1983. p. 59, N 256; Munk Olsen V. L'etude des manuscripts classiques latins aux XIe et XIIe siecle. T. III. Pt 2 . P., 1987. P. 68-69; Siewert K. Die Althochdeutsche Horazglossierung. Gottingen, 1986 (Studien zum Althochdeutsch, Bd 8). S. 387; Riou Y.-F. Chronologie et provenance des manuscrits classiques latins neumes: Revue d'histoire des textes. T. XXI. 1991. P. 77-113, особ. 90, 106; Antonets E. V. Genre characteristics of Horace's odes in the St. Petersburg manuscript Cl. lat. o. v. 4 (Russian National Library). Episode 9. Philology. 1997. N 1. pp. 98-107;

Antonets E. V. K voprosu o vremya vozrozhdeniya forma threnetice, palinodia[ti]ce i l(a)erchetice v inskriptiyakh k ody Horatii [On the question of the time of occurrence of the forms threnetice, palinodia [ti] ce and l (a) erchetice in the odes of Horace]. Collection of articles based on the materials of readings dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Professor Iosif Moiseevich Troisky, St. Petersburg, 1998, pp. 241-246.

* * *

So, the St. Petersburg manuscript of Horace is interesting in many ways, and by some criteria (notation, composition of genre characteristics of odes, variants of metric fragments) is unique. The most important objects of further study of the manuscript are its glosses and neumes; special attention should be paid to determining the place of the St. Petersburg manuscript among other Horace manuscripts, as well as the history of the codex, which still remains a complete mystery, although it may be important for studying the history of P. P. Dubrovsky's manuscript collection.

(48) For more information, see Employees of the Russian National Library ... pp. 172-174.

(49) On November 12, 1811, the new director of the Public Library, A. N. Olenin, organized an urgent inspection of the Manuscript Depot, which lasted until March 2, 1812. Almost all the manuscripts of P. P. Dubrovsky's collection have preserved traces of this check - the digital numbering of the sheets and, on the last sheets, the receipts of the librarians who took part in the revision: V. P. Dvigubsky, M. A. Semiganovsky, A. I. Krassovsky, Abbe de Grandidier, A. I. Ermolaev, F. I. Laskovsky, V. S. Sopikov, P. K. Kozlovsky and N. I. Gnedich (Voronova T. P. P. P. Dubrovsky - the first keeper of the "Depot of manuscripts" of the Public Library / / Archeographic yearbook for 1980, Moscow, 1981. pp. 123-130; Voronova T. P. Materials to the biography of P. P. Dubrovsky / / Source study of monuments of written culture. L., 1984. pp. 120-130). The code we are studying was checked by the Abbe de Grandidier, who worked in the Public Library. to the library from October 1810 to January 1, 1827.

(50) For more information, see Employees of the Russian National Library ... pp. 123-125. I. A. Bychkov was appointed librarian on February 1, 1881. He was a member of the Department of Manuscripts and served in this capacity until his death in 1944.

page 143


Ye.V. Antonets

The author presents a new bibliographical description of the manuscript which has never been described completely. The article also summarizes the history of the codex and its previous bibliographical exploration. In some respects (neumatic notation, genre characteristics of Horace's poems, etc.) the manuscript seems to be unique and awaits closer attention.


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E. V. Antonets, ST. PETERSBURG MANUSCRIPT OF HORACE Cl. lat. o. v. 4 (RNB) AND PROBLEMS OF STUDYING IT // Delhi: India (ELIB.ORG.IN). Updated: 17.06.2024. URL: (date of access: 21.07.2024).

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