Libmonster ID: IN-1313
Author(s) of the publication: A. KUTSENKO

Civil society in India is still in its early stages of development. But over the past two or three decades, it has taken a step forward. The socio-political activity of the population has significantly increased. The number of non-governmental voluntary organizations of citizens (NGOs) has increased many times. They operate both in the city and in the countryside; at all levels of the political and administrative system. They function in all the main spheres of the country's life-in the economy and politics, in culture and education, in health care and sports. The role of intellectual labor and professional knowledge is increasing in the activities of NGOs.

An outstanding achievement of NGOs in recent years was the adoption of the law on the Right to information on their initiative. The law narrows the scope of secrecy, gives every citizen the right to receive information to the same extent as members of Parliament and legislative assemblies receive it. It increases the transparency of government structures, contributes to the fight against corruption and abuse of bureaucracy, and promotes the development of the democratic process in the country.

NGOs represent the interests of various strata and groups of the population, different ideological and political trends - secular and religious-communal, progressive and conservative, left and right. Their relations with the State are different.

The boom of the volunteer movement caught many scientists and politicians by surprise. Thus, Indian social science has not yet come to an agreement even on the composition of civil society in general and the non-State sector in particular. Two main approaches are identified. Proponents of one (let's call it the broad one) believe that civil society (CS) and, accordingly, NGOs include all public structures that are located between the family and the state - all non - state entities, regardless of the principles of their formation - prescriptive or voluntary, and the goals that they pursue-altruistic or self-serving.

Proponents of a different (restrictive) approach believe that civil society can only be represented by voluntary non-profit, non-political associations operating in the social sphere. Their goal should be free service to people - charity, helping the poor, socially vulnerable and belittled segments of the population-slum dwellers, the unemployed, Dalits (untouchables), Adhivasis (tribal members), women, the elderly, children, etc.

In accordance with this point of view, business organizations, cooperatives, trade unions, and political parties are not part of the GO, since the purpose of their activities is not altruism, but the achievement of certain benefits. Some state experts add to the listed criteria of an NGO-a member of the GO one more thing - the organization should not be in opposition to the state, but be its partner in solving social problems of the population.

But no matter how different non-governmental organizations are in their nature, they all contribute to the development of civil society. Reflecting its problems, exposing its contradictions, they contribute to the development of a dialogue between the government and the people, between various social forces. Ultimately, this contributes to the formation of the checks, balances and compromises that are so necessary to harmonize relations in society, to prevent violence and conflicts that still continue to claim the lives of thousands of Indian citizens today.

The role of voluntary non-profit organizations in the social sphere is particularly important. They are directly involved in solving the most painful issues of modern Indian society. Most of their participants are volunteers who are ready to give their time, energy, and knowledge to society for free, and share their sometimes very modest means with it.


No one knows the exact number of NGOs in India. The creation of a database about them began quite recently. The only more or less realistic estimate applies to the voluntary non-profit sector. It is estimated that at the beginning of 2000, excluding self-help groups, cooperatives, trade unions and political parties, the total number of NGOs in this sector reached 1.2 million. A good half of them were not registered anywhere. For the most part, these are small and very small organizations. In 2000, 19.4 million people were employed in the non-profit sector of NGOs - a small number compared to the total population, but

The article was prepared in the framework of the project "India's experience in the formation of civil society" in the program of fundamental research of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Public Potential of History". The author takes this opportunity to thank the leadership of the Indian Council for Social Research, headed by Prof. Andre Betheilem for his assistance in working on this topic during a research trip in January-February 2006.

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it is quite comparable to the number of employees in the largest industries. 85% of them are volunteers.

The largest sphere of application of non-profit sector NGO forces is religious activities. It employs 26.6% of all NGOs. They build temples, mosques, churches, maintain holy places, organize religious holidays, and hold other similar events. This is followed by the service sector, which is very widely understood in India: from improving the living conditions of socially vulnerable groups to legal services for citizens - 21.5%; education (literacy elimination, support of educational institutions, training in professions) - 20.4%; culture and sports-18.0%; health care (first aid, examinations, diagnostics, treatment) - 6.6%. Thus, the overwhelming majority of voluntary non - profit organizations (73.4%) are directly engaged in social activities1.

The growth rate of NGOs is striking. If at the end of the 1960s the number of NGOs was measured in tens, at most hundreds of thousands of units, then at the end of 2005, the number of NGOs in the United States was reduced to one hundred thousand. it exceeded 2.5 million rubles. The immediate impetus for the boom of the voluntary sector in the social sphere was the failure of the previous models of socio-economic development of the country in terms of eliminating poverty and social disenfranchisement and disillusionment of the population with the results of the activities of political parties that replaced each other at the head of the government. Until the late 1960s, the prevailing view in India's ruling circles was that the problem of poverty could be solved by public investment in the social sphere.

But two decades of development on the "non-Peruvian" model, despite certain achievements, have convinced the public that this path is not very effective. The main document of the 3rd Five-Year plan (1961-1966) emphasized that " the unmet needs of people are so great that all investments in the public and private sectors, taken together, can only have a limited effect. Properly organized, voluntary community efforts can increase the capacity of local communities to help vulnerable populations and improve their lives in some way. The means for this must be the time, energy and resources of millions of people, for whom DO (voluntary organizations. - A. K.) must find constructive forms of application that meet the different conditions of the country " 2.

Since the 70s of the last century, liberal economic reforms began to be carried out in the country, and the state began to gradually withdraw from the social sphere in the hope that the problem of eliminating mass poverty would be successfully solved using market mechanisms. But these hopes were only partially fulfilled. The reforms have indeed placed the country among the most dynamically developing countries in the world. But not everyone has taken advantage of the benefits of economic growth. The share of citizens living below the poverty line has more than doubled, but their number has remained approximately the same - 300 million people.

The current situation in the social sector stimulated the self-organization of society, the formation of voluntary associations and social movements of citizens, who gradually took the matter of improving their situation into their own hands - whether by increasing pressure on the state or achieving the goal at the expense of their own efforts and resources.3

Civil society, for its part, has convinced the State that it is appropriate to transfer a number of its functions to non-governmental organizations, as is done in some countries of mature Western democracy. "As the state reduces its involvement in improving living conditions and providing social services to the population, society attaches increasing importance to NGOs. They are viewed as an alternative force to the state. " 4

From the state point of view, the strengths of the voluntary sector are that it is less constrained by bureaucratic formalities, more flexible in determining its structure and activities, and its apparatus is less corrupt.

Activities that involve the public are more likely to succeed than those undertaken by the Government, where people play the role of passive observers. Therefore, the State itself encourages the development of the voluntary sector, especially that part of it that is focused on cooperation with it.

The transfer of state functions to the voluntary sector is also facilitated by the policy of foreign charitable foundations, which prefer to direct their funds not to the depersonalized state budget, but to places where it is easier to control their spending.

The development of the non-profit NGO sector would not have been so rapid if it were not for the tradition of volunteerism and charity that has existed in India since time immemorial. For a long time, it developed within the framework of a family-clan, caste and religious organization. Even today, religious and community-caste structures remain the largest donors to NGOs, and many of them are limited to caring for members of "their" communities.

However, reform movements, the activities of Christian missionaries, and the national liberation movement have enriched this tradition with common civil ideas of economic, social, cultural, and spiritual revival of India, freeing its inhabitants from poverty and backwardness. After coming to power, the Indian National Congress (INC) recognized these ideas as the basis of its political activities.

Accordingly, there has never been a shortage of enthusiasts in India who are willing to serve people for free, regardless of their caste or religious affiliation. Even today, many prominent political and public figures, including top officials of the state, have left their official posts and consider it their duty to personally participate in charitable and other projects.-

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other actions for the benefit of the company. An example is the recently established Unknown Indians to Unknown Soldiers Foundation. The "Unknown Indians" are I. K. Gujral, former Prime Minister of India, Alice Leila Seth, former Chief Justice, N. N. Vora, former Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs, K. Shankar Bajpai, former Ambassador, Arun Bharat Ram, Head of the Industrial Finance Group (major donor), Ved Mardwah - Former Governor, R. K. P. Shankardass-former Supreme Court judge and V. D. Verghese-former publisher of the Hindustan Times newspaper 5. The Fund is intended to help families of military personnel who died while rescuing civilians during disaster relief.

The volunteer movement provides an outlet for people's energy, which literally changes the face of a huge country before our eyes. Two examples taken from the life of rural and urban India show what opportunities lurk in amateur folk activities.


Until a decade ago, the village of Jiradgaon in the Jalna district (Maharashtra) was no different from other villages in the district. Its inhabitants grew traditional sugar cane, rice, wheat, millet, etc. Small plots of land brought a beggarly income. Droughts that followed for several years in a row finally broke the village's economy. Its inhabitants were literally on the verge of starvation.

This was not until Dr. Bhagwanrao Kapse, head of the Department at the Badnapura College of Agriculture and a former adviser to the state Government, took up the task of persuading farmers to abandon the traditional crop rotation and start growing high-yield crops. The peasants did not immediately accept his proposals. But there was no other way out.

B. Kapse and his friends provided the village with elite seedlings of mango, pomegranate, lemon and cashew nuts, varietal seeds of soy, peanuts and other labor-intensive but highly profitable crops. They taught farmers the latest technologies for preserving soil moisture, rational use of fertilizers, composting and plant care. They raised previously unemployed young people to dig ponds and build dams, which made it possible to partially solve the problem of irrigation and water supply. Today, Jiradgaon has 425 acres of mango orchards, 250 acres of pomegranate and 700 acres of lemon, and the village itself, according to an eyewitness, is a "blooming plantation" .6

Having agreed with a well-known firm in Mumbai, B. Kapse also decided to sell products for export. It took a lot of new workers. B. Kapse organized a dozen women's self-help groups, which were engaged in making cardboard boxes, sorting and packing fruit. The incomes of the peasants increased, and with them the social needs. It is noteworthy that the majority of illiterate villagers on their own initiative collected 100 thousand rupees and bought a land plot of 2 acres for the construction of a school.

The joint case also changed the socio-psychological climate in the village. "Under the influence of the rich dividends from collective activity, inter-group feuds are a thing of the past. The villagers were united by a common desire - to make life better"7. The example of Jiradgaon village was contagious. The association of fruit producers, organized by the same B. Kapse and his comrades, was joined by farmers from 7 more surrounding villages.

Another example. Two decades ago, the families of two women, Champadevi Shukla and Rashida Bee, like many others, were affected by a toxic gas leak at the American Union Carbide Corporation plant in Bhopal. Champadevi Shukla's husband died of poisoning, and his son, unable to bear the torment, committed suicide. "It was hard for me," says Ch. Shukla. "I didn't think there was anything else to live for. But when I saw that there were a lot of people around who were suffering like me, I realized that I needed to put aside my longing and unite. If people want to, they can do anything. " 8

Champadevi Shukla and Rashida Bee have made it their life's goal to protect the rights of accident victims. They had to endure a difficult struggle with local authorities before they made their way to the reception of the country's Prime Minister, they had to sue Union Carbide, go through proceedings in courts of various instances in India and the United States. As a result, the US Federal Court recognized the right of victims to compensation for lost property, ordered the American company to pay them funds for treatment, and even expressed its readiness to force Union Carbide to clean up the soil and subsurface water from pollution with the appropriate request from the Government of India.

These once-downtrodden, illiterate and no longer young children of the bastti slums forced the government to supply residents of the affected areas of the city with normal drinking water, create jobs for the victims of the accident in state-owned enterprises, and organized a trade union that achieved a tolerable salary for employees. The social work of Champadevi Shukla and Rashida Bi has been widely recognized, and both of them have won the prestigious International Prize for Environmental Conservation.9

There are two notable points in these examples that highlight new features of the formation of a civil society. The first is that the initiative of self-organization, which previously belonged almost exclusively to representatives of the wealthy classes, is now becoming the business of ordinary people. And secondly, in both cases, joint voluntary efforts not only contributed to achieving a specific goal, but also helped to overcome communal discord, which is especially important in the context of the current aggravation of contradictions between Hindus and Muslims, between different caste groups.

page 13


According to researcher Joan Mencher, in India, "the concept of NGOs serves as a common roof for a huge variety of structures that differ greatly in their size and goals, solving different strategic tasks." 10 This makes the task of classifying them almost impossible.

Many authors suggest grouping organizations of the non-profit voluntary sector according to the number and composition of participants; goals and areas of activity; sources of funding; origin; attitude to innovation and modern technologies; decision-making procedure 11. D. Rajasekhar, a prominent expert on civil society issues, suggests using two indicators for this purpose-the scale and direction of activities. It divides all NGOs into two classes : first-level organizations (microlevel or grass root level), those that work directly with the local population; and higher-level organizations (macrolevel), which interact not with the population, but with first-level NGOs.

But from the point of view of solving social problems, it would make more sense to classify voluntary non-profit NGOs in the social sector according to their relationship to the state and with the state. In this case, the position of the majority of NGOs in the voluntary non-profit sector should be recognized as oppositional, and their activities as protest. This is illustrated by the Bhopal residents ' movement led by Champadevi Shukla and Rashida Bee. Other NGOs seek to solve the social problems of the population on their own. These include, with good reason, the Fruit Growers ' Association, organized by Dr. B. Kapse and his associates.


A special place among NGOs in the social sector is occupied by partner organizations of the state (PO). They participate in the implementation of certain social programs, and their activities are more or less financed from the budget. Currently, the website of the Indian Planning Commission contains information about 13 thousand people. NGOs that receive grants from various ministries and departments. In addition, there are data on 1,000 NGOs that are recognized as "reliable partners". Partner organizations participate in the implementation of more than 500 programs initiated by various levels of government 12.

Software is considered to be the most prosperous part of NGOs. They have a constant source of funding, which gives them the opportunity to maintain staff, attract specialists, etc. Many NGOs seek to get the status of a "reliable partner". But not everyone succeeds. The best chances are those organizations that have managed to establish themselves well, headed by well-known public figures, high-ranking retired military personnel, former members of parliament or the government, and people with connections.

The 9th five-year plan has become an important milestone in the development of partnership relations between the state and the voluntary sector. In its interim progress report (October 2000), the Planning Commission expressed a number of fundamental considerations that formed the basis for reforming this important area of public policy.

First of all, the areas of partnership between the state and NGOs were clarified. The activities of "people's organizations" were considered particularly desirable in rural areas. Education, medical care, family planning, restoration of abandoned land, improvement of soil fertility, conservation and rational use of water resources, small irrigation, forest planting, veterinary medicine, dairy farming, fishing, sericulture, etc. were identified as priority areas of cooperation.


A single cooperation management center was established and the Government assigned the responsibilities of such a center to the Planning Commission. In accordance with this instruction, the Planning Commission develops areas and programs of cooperation, determines budget funds for this purpose.

An important innovation was the specification of the criteria on the basis of which a particular NGO can qualify for the role of a partner.

The organization must be "legal", i.e. registered, based in rural areas, operate for at least three years, and be loyal to the state.

Previously, government agencies only worked with organizations that asked them for help. It was difficult for government agencies to assess the numerous NGO proposals and monitor their implementation. By order of the Government, all this organizational work was entrusted to KAPART (Council for Advance of People's Action and Rural Technology).

As a result of these and other transformations, the partnership between the State and NGOs has acquired a hierarchical structure. The top of this hierarchy is KAPART. KAPART is joined by organizations at the pan-Indian level - "managing" NGOs dealing with issues of integrated regional development and "mother" NGOs specializing in specific areas of activity. Today, there are about 40 such organizations.

The basis of this pyramid is formed by grassroots, primary (grassroot) structures - NGOs or self-help groups operating at the level of a neighboring community or village.

How this system works can be judged by the work of the NGO " Help Age "("HE" - Help for the elderly). This is a very solid organization at the pan-Indian level, as evidenced at least by the fact that its trustees are two former members of the Board of Directors.-

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The two presidents of the country are R. Venkataraman and K. R. Narayanan. In 2004-2005, the budget of HE was almost Rs 301 million. Of these, it received Rs 296 million from the State and donors. The rest of the funds were brought to her by commercial activities, income from securities, etc. 13

HE branches are located in 33 state capitals and major regional centers of the country. It has 387 permanent employees. In the field work, Help Age departments use the work of volunteers.

During the aftermath of the tsunami in South-East Asia (December 2004), thanks to the participation of a large group of medical workers-volunteers, more than 30 thousand people of different ages received first aid "HE".

One of the goals of the HE projects is to rid the elderly of the feeling of being an" extra person", a" burden " for society. To this end, HE organizes handicrafts training for old people, organizes and finances self-help groups for the production of souvenirs, jewelry, household utensils, and helps them sell products on the market.


During the years of impressive growth of the volunteer movement in India, the obstacles that hinder its further development have become quite clear. The main thing is financial hunger. The total budget of NGOs accounts for only 7.7% of government spending on social needs, which, as is well known, is clearly insufficient to meet the needs of society.

Another obstacle is the interests of donors, which restrict the freedom of action of NGOs. They often do not coincide with the interests of society and especially those segments of it that most need help. Indeed, their own funds together with donations from individuals, which NGOs can spend at their own discretion, make up 54.7% of their total budget. The remaining 45.3% they receive from the state, various foundations, Indian corporations and foreign donors.

As for the State, it primarily sponsors partner NGOs. Organizations whose activities are of a protest nature or are in opposition to the government, despite all their importance from the point of view of civil society interests, often not only do not enjoy state support, but also meet with opposition from local ruling elites, corrupt officials and all those who are interested in preserving the existing order.

Indian and foreign sponsoring corporations (their donations account for 3.7% and 7.4% of NGO budgets, respectively) prefer to direct funds not to the poorest areas, but mainly to those that are considered promising from a market point of view. NGOs funded from abroad are essentially branches of relevant international organizations. They are reproached with the fact that they rarely conduct "rough work" among the population. They conduct surveys, prepare reports and recommendations, and lobby for the interests of their foreign sponsors. If they participate in the implementation of government programs, they do so with the help of their highly paid employees. This is not conducive to the development of volunteerism 14.

The authors of the report, prepared by Dutch donor organizations and the Indian Center for the Study of Developing Societies, believe that the activities of Indian NGOs receiving assistance from abroad have the "greatest effect" in expanding the NGO network, i.e. in a banal increase in their number. It is "less effective" in developing civic consciousness; and it is "least effective" in "supporting the poor and disadvantaged" .15

The weakness of many Indian NGOs, especially those headed by "charismatic personalities", remains an insufficient level of internal democracy and their closed nature. This "carries a serious risk of abuse on the part of managers, staff, politicians, local intermediaries between the government and the people, and other holders of posts and positions" 16.

Many researchers note the lack of proper coordination of voluntary associations across the country, insufficient attention to the needs of organizations that work directly in the field. Poor staff training remains a common problem for the volunteer sector.

Nevertheless, the press highly appreciates the new directions of the volunteer movement, in particular, in providing legal assistance to the population.

But the system of relations between the state and partner NGOs is still not well established. As a result, even if they want to, NGOs are sometimes forced to ignore the population groups that are particularly in need of their help.

Increasing budget allocations for the implementation of social programs creates unhealthy trends in relations between partner organizations themselves. NGOs struggle for budget funds, which makes it difficult for them to cooperate and cooperate.

The hierarchical vertical of partner organizations created by the government in order to streamline the passage of budget funds leads to a dispersion of resources between management structures, to an increase in the cost of the administrative apparatus, to "inappropriate" expenses for building offices, holding seminars, conferences, presentations and other actions that are not directly related to the goals and objectives of state social programs. The current hierarchy of partner NGOs leads to the fact that financial and other state support for organizations engaged in practical work "ceases at the regional level, and in some regions-at the district level," sociologist Rangan Dat17 believes.

Scope of cooperation between the State and partner organizations-

page 15

It is becoming a favorable environment for corruption. "Just yesterday, the registration chamber office, sleepy from idleness, today became a sinecure for officials. They got the opportunity to receive rent for registering promising NGOs out of turn, " says publicist N. Saksena. The large budget and public funds concentrated in the hands of the voluntary sector, he believes, attract "all sorts of undesirable elements who would like to profit from easily available funds, which also do not need to be returned"18.

An unhealthy trend in the development of the voluntary social sector is its commercialization, which contradicts the essence of the voluntary movement. Some solid NGOs that have emerged over the past two decades "look more like commercial establishments. They do little to mobilize the population and involve it in the development process, to improve the situation of marginalized groups ... Many such organizations are created by crooks and crooks, defeated politicians and their wives. They seek grants from donors or ministries, and spend them quickly, without meeting the long-term goals of sustainable development or poverty eradication. " 19

In early February 2006, a scandal broke out in India with a certain Navin Chaula, who, while serving as the state Commissioner for Elections, registered, which he had no right to do, three charitable organizations of which he and his wife became trustees. N. Chaul's family received large sums of money from the Parliamentary Regional Development Fund and a number of prominent politicians, enjoyed tax and other benefits, "the generosity of which is amazing"20. Not only was the spending of the funds not sufficiently transparent, but N. Chaula's activities "raise legitimate doubts about the objectivity and independence" of his official decisions. 21


Distortions in the activities of non-governmental organizations did not disappoint the public and the state in the voluntary movement. It follows from the documents of the 10th five-year plan that "in the interests of developing a genuine civil society", the state intends to continue to encourage "voluntary, non-governmental and other popular organizations". The State calls on the voluntary movement to "increase efficiency" and has high hopes for the harmonization of social relations in the country. Thus, the Planning Commission has put forward even such a difficult task for the voluntary sector as to serve as a "balancing force between the state and market institutions"22. The State intends to further improve its partnership relations with NGOs by making them extremely transparent.

The State considers the promotion of partnership relations between all levels of civil society and, above all, between the voluntary sector and local self - government-panchayats and municipalities in the economic, social, cultural and spiritual development of the country to be a super-task, or "mantra of the new millennium" .23

At the same time, many experts in India believe that in the current conditions, the country's voluntary sector is not yet able to take the place of the state in providing for the social needs of the population. Contrary to the recommendations of domestic and foreign propagandists of liberalism, it should continue to bear the main burden of spending on social needs and manage the development of the social sphere. At the same time, NGOs can play an important but secondary role.

Over the decades, India has accumulated extensive and valuable experience in organizing cooperation between voluntary associations of citizens and the state in the fight against poverty, in ensuring the constitutional rights of citizens. Russia is also solving similar problems today. The exchange of experience can and should become one of the most important areas of cooperation between scientists of both countries.

Srivastava S. S., Tandon Rajesh. 1 How Large is India's Non-Profit Sector? // Economic and Political Weekly, May 7, 2005, p. 1948 - 1952.

Beteille Andre. 2 Civil Society and Voluntary Associations // Workshop on Contexts and Dinamics of Civil Society in 21-st Century. New Delhi, February 20 - 21, 2003, p. 4.

3 Ibidem.

Pawar S. N., Ambedkar J. B., Shrikant D. 4 Introduction // NGOs and Development. Ed. S. N. Pavar, J. B. Ambedkar, D. Shricant. New Delhi, 2004, p. 14.

Akbar Prayaag. 5 For the Unknown Soldier // Outlook, January 16. 2006, p. 14.

Kabra Harsh. 6 The Sweet Fruits of Graft // Outlook, May 2 2005, p. 10.

7 Ibidem.

8 Interview. The Long Journey from Bhopal // Frontline. Volume 21. Issue 13, June 19 - July 2, 2004.

9 Ibidem.

Mencher Joan. 10 NGOs: Are They a Force for Change? // Economic and Political Weekly. July 24, 1999, p. 2081.

11 Ibidem.

Reddy N. L. Narasimha and Rajaserhar D. 12 Development Programmes and NGOs: A Guide on Central Government Programmes for NGOs in India. Bangalore, 1996; Rajaserhar D. and Reddy N. L. Narasimha Local Development Programmes and NGOs: A Guide on Local Government Programmes for Field Workers. Bangalore, 1997.

13 Help Age India. Statement of Accounts for the Year Ended. March 31, 2005.

Dutta Rangan. 14 Partnership Between the Government, and the Voluntaty Sector - Issues and Prospects // Training Workshop on "State-Civil Society Inter-face for Improved Policy Performance", February 20 - 22, 2006, p. 2.

Dr. Mattind de Graaf 15 in collaboration with Dr. Raj Srivastava. Executive Summary. The Contribution of Dutch Co-Financing Organisations to Civil Society Building in India Synthesis Report. Volume 1. 2001, p. 10.

16 Ibid., p. 12.

Dutta Rangan. 17 Partnership Between.., p. 6.

Saxena N. C. 18 NGOs and the State in India. An Uncomfortable Relationship // Workshop on Contexts and Dinamics of Civil Society in 21-st Century. New Delhi February 20 - 21, 2003, p. 52.

19 Ibidem.

20 The Times of India, 07.02.2006.

21 The Hindustan Times, 09.02.2006.

22 Approach Paper to the Tenth Five Year Plan. Planning Commission, Government of India. New Delhi. 2001.

23 Planning Commission. Report of the Steering Committee on Voluntary Sector in the Tenth Plan (2002 - 2007) // Training Workshop on "State-Civil Society Inter-face..."


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