Libmonster ID: IN-1347
Author(s) of the publication: A. A. Vigasin

Among the many inserted episodes of the Mahabharata, one of the most famous is "The Story of Savitri "(III. 277-283). It has been repeatedly translated into various languages, including Russian (1). The plot of the story is as follows.

A powerful and glorious king of the Madras tribe named Ashwapati ("Steed-wielder") he suffered from the fact that he had no heirs. For many years, he performed severe fasts and vows, praying to the goddess Savitri to give him sons. Finally, the gods relented, and a daughter was born to the king, who was named Savitri in honor of the goddess. The princess grew up and became a girl of divine beauty. However, the suitors did not woo her, because they were stopped by her tejas ("shine, shine"). Ashwapati told his daughter to find a husband for herself, and the princess set out on her journey. When Savitri returned, she informed her father that her choice had been made. It fell on the young Satyavan, the only son of the Salva king. She also explained that Satyavan's father had once been blind and had lost his throne, so he was forced to live as a hermit in a forest monastery with his wife and son. After hearing all this, sage Narada, who was at Ashvapati's side, was distraught, for he knew that Satyavan was going to die in exactly one year. The king tried to prevent this marriage. But the girl firmly replied that she would not back down from her decision - and her father had to prepare the wedding.

For the whole year Savitri lived with her husband and his parents in a forest monastery as a humble hermit. On the eve of the predicted date, she performed the feats of the severe asuke-


1. The Legend of Savitria (from the Mahabharata) / Translated from Sanskrit by P. Ya. Petrov // Moskvityanin. 1841. Part 6. N 11; Mahabharata. Ramayana / Translated by S. Lipkina, Moscow, 1974; Mahabharata. Two poems from the Third Book / Translated by B. L. Smirnov. Ashgabat, 1955; Mahabharata. Book III. Lesnaya ("Aranyakaparva") / Translated from Sanskrit by Ya. V. Vasilkov and S. L. Neveleva, Moscow, 1987; The Tale of Savitri / Translated by N. V. Lobanova // St. Petersburg Oriental Studies. 1997. Issue 9.

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tizma: refused food, stood motionless for three days... On the fateful day, Satyavan went to the forest to get wood for the sacrificial fire, and his wife followed him closely. The tired young man lay down on the ground with his head in her lap, and at that very moment it was exactly one year since the word of the wise Narada was spoken. Savitri saw in front of her a huge black man with red eyes, who gave off a dazzling tejas. In his hands was a noose, like one used to catch birds. With a noose, he pulled a small man the size of a finger out of Satyavan's body and went with him south to the land of the dead.

Savitri goes after him, and a dramatic dialogue begins between her and the death god Yama. A woman refuses to leave Satyavan (III. 281. 20-21):

"Where my husband goes or is led, I must go-that is my eternal duty. Thanks to my asceticism, devotion (bhaktya, variant v. rttya - "behavior towards") to my father - in-law and mother-in-law, a vow made out of love for my husband (2), as well as your location, the path is unobstructed for me."

She continues, "The wise seers have said: that which is based on the seven steps is friendship (3); putting friendship above all else, I will also say - and you listen!" (prahuh saptapadam maitram buddhas tattvarthadarsinah mitratam ca puraskrtya kimcid vaksyami tacchrnu). To understand this phrase, you need to know the Vedic wedding ritual and its accompanying formulas. According to the sutra texts attributed to the ancient" seers "- rishis, the defining moment of marriage is saptapadi - " the rite of seven steps." After circumambulating the wedding fire, the bride and groom take seven steps in the north-eastern (most favorable) direction, saying ("Ashvalayana-grhyasutra" I. 7. 19): "Take one step for the life-giving juice, two for strength, three for prosperity, four for happiness, five "for the sake of posterity, six for the sake of the seasons, seven for the sake of being a loyal friend." There may be slightly different versions of the formula, but always the seventh step means the conclusion of an unbreakable union ("friendship") - cf." Vaikhanasa-smartasutra "(III.4): "Be a friend through the seven steps. We became friends through the seven steps. I make a friendship with you. May I not break my friendship with you, and you may not break your friendship with me." Hence the usual designation of a wife by the term "friend" (for example, "Taittiriya-samhita". VI. 2. 9: patril hi sarvasya mitram).

In this context, Savitri's further argument (4) is understandable: "All of us have chosen this path (sarve sma (5) tarn margam anuprapannah) according to the approved duty of the pious (satam matena) (6) as a sole (spouse = friend, ekasya dhannena), and I do not wish either


2. Bhartrsnehadvratena ca-does not correspond to "my love for my husband, my vow", as translated, for example: A. B. Van Buitenen (Buitenen A. B. van. The Mahabharata. The Book of the Forest. Chicago, 1975), and after it S. L. Neveleva (sneha and vrata cannot be homogeneous members of the sentence here). B. L. Smirnov translates - "marriage love vow", which also distorts the meaning. This is a special vow (vratam triratram - III. 280. 3) that Savitri performed out of love for her husband.

3. In the translation of S. L. Neveleva: "... it is enough to walk only seven steps with a person to find a friend in him", the meaning is clearly lost (compare Van Beutenen: "he who walks the seven steps with one is his friend"). In N. L. Lobanova, it is much better: "seven steps the marriage contract is sealed."

4. The interpretations offered in other translations, in our opinion, do not correspond to the context. For example, S. L. Neveleva gives the following interpretation: "If one person correctly observes the dharma, approved by the worthy, all enter this path. Neither the second (life in the forest) nor the third (hard work of an ascetic) should be preferred to (loyalty to the dharma)." But the text doesn't say whether you should choose to live in the forest or be faithful to your duty. The word ekasya ("one") clearly cannot be separated from the words "second" and "third". Sensing this, B. L. Smirnov translates: "there is no debt alone," but ekasya dhanna cannot mean "debt alone," it is " the duty of the only one." And if a woman "does not want another and a third", then she wants to remain faithful, fulfilling her duty to the only spouse with whom she made an unbreakable union before the altar. This is the "exaltation of friendship" or the duty of loyalty (puras-kf - "Ehre erweisen" or "zur Richtschnur nehmen", "wahlen").

5. Here sma, as often in the epic, is identical to smas, 1 l. plural from as - "to be".

6. The same sadacara - "tradition, unwritten custom".

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no second, no third... " (vanche) (7). It should be an unbreakable union (marriage = "friendship"), which corresponds to religious duty (dharma). Forest hermits who are completely in control of themselves (atmavantas in the preceding verse) cannot betray their duty.

After this and similar utterances, God becomes ecstatic. He is satisfied (tus. ta-III. 281. 25) with them as sacrifices (cf. earlier on the goddess Savitri, who is from the Ashvapati sacrifices tustim abhyagat - III. 277.10). He compares Savitri's words to a drink offered to the thirsty (III. 281. 36). When satisfied, Yama - as if exchanging gifts with a person-allows the woman to choose what she wants for each of the words. However, a caveat is made: "except for the life of Satyavan."

A respectful daughter - in-law chooses sight for her father-in-law as the first gift, and the return of the royal throne to him as the second. The third gift is the birth of a hundred sons - heirs to her father Ashwapati, and the fourth - a hundred native sons for herself from Satyavan (a folklore motif of deception of the deity!). Finally, after the fifth utterance, God makes no further reservation, and a triumphant Savitri may say, " You have given me a hundred sons by Satyavan, and You want to take my husband... So that your words may not be false, Satyavan must live - I do not ask for any other gift." God is forced to step back and fulfill the woman's demand, to give her this unheard-of and incomparable gift.

After releasing Satyavan's soul, Yama retreats to the land of the dead, and the young man comes to life as if he has woken up from a long sleep. The couple returns to the forest abode, having found the fulfillment of all their desires.

The Story of Savitri is often seen as a reflection of the pan-Indian ideal of marital fidelity (8) - and this is undoubtedly true. The heroine's name has become a household name in this capacity. The poem repeatedly repeats the epithets of Princess pativrata ("faithful spouse" - III. 277. 3; 281. 12; 281. 18), sadhvT vadhu ("pious wife" - III. 282. 9). Her image is associated with safi - a widow who follows her husband to the funeral pyre. Savitri, as a dutiful daughter - in-law who pleases her father-in-law, mother-in-law and husband, illustrates the ethical values of classical Hinduism, a religion in which the Mahabharata plays the role of sacred tradition. A number of characteristic details in the "Savitri Story" - for example, the mention of the" golden statue " of the goddess (III. 277. 26) - indicate a rather late design of the literary version available to us.

But the meaning of the legend can also be viewed in a completely different context. First of all, it is noteworthy that we are talking about well-known tribes of India. The wife of King Ashwapati was called Malawi (III. 277. 22). In fulfillment of the promise made to her daughter Yama, she gave birth to one hundred Malava sons (III. 283. 59: "You will have Malava brothers born of Malawi, Kshatriyas, through their sons and grandsons forever (living on Earth)" - malavyam malava nama sasvatah putrapautrinah bhrataras te bhavisyanti ksatriyas tridasopamah). The Malavas were a tribe that lived in Punjab and Rajasthan. The Panini grammar (V. 3. 117) mentions "militant associations" (ayudhajlvl sangha), as an example of which "Kashika" cites Malavov (as well as ksudraka). The last two names evoke the memory of those" Mallas and oxy-drakes " that Alexander the Great's troops had to fight in Southern Punjab.

Another branch of the Malawas, who settled to the southeast, later gave the name of the historical region of Malwa. Perhaps they appear in Pliny the Elder as maroae. In the "Natural History" (VI. 74), they are described as follows: "Not subject to anyone and not having kings, they occupy with their numerous fortified settlements the tops of hills that stretch in an unbroken chain along the coast


7. Reading option-varichet - "should not be desired".

8. Akiujkar V. Savitn: Old and New // Essays on the Mahabharata / Ed. A. Sharma. Leiden, 1991.

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The ocean". The socio-political structure of the Malavas is usually characterized as a non-monarchical "association" (gana) of noble clans headed by tribal "kings" (rajan). This fully corresponds to the information contained in the Savitri Legend: a hundred Malava brothers, Kshatriyas, all from the royal family.

The epic names Ashwapati, the king of the Madras, a famous tribe of the Northern Punjab (upper reaches of the Chenab, Ravi, and Jhelum rivers), as their father. The capital of the Madras was considered to be the city of Sagala (probably on the site of modern Sialkot). According to the "Legend", the Malavas claimed descent from the Madras.

The Shalvas of which Satyavan's father was king (III. 278. 7; 283. 3, 11), also mentioned in the Panini Grammar (IV. 1. 173). The Kashika states that their divisions are the Udumbara, Tilakhala, Madrakara, Yugandhara, Bhulinga and Saradata tribes. Some of these names are found in ancient authors (Pliny, Ptolemy) in connection with the description of Rajasthan, Haryana and Gujarat. According to the Gopatha Brahmana (I. 2. 9), the Shalvas are associated with the Matsyas (Berat district), and they lived in the area of the modern city of Alwara (9).

Satyavan's mother is called "shaibya" (III. 282. 2, 26; 283. 10), which means "shibiyka, from the Shibi tribe". The Shibi inhabited the region between the Indus and Chenab, and are referred to by ancient authors as "Sibs" (Arrian. India. V. 12; Diodorus. XVII. 96).

Yama promises Savitri (III. 280. 57) that she will give birth to a hundred sons from Satyavan "and they will all be kings, kshatriyas, having sons and grandsons, eternally (abiding) here (on Earth), and bearing your name" (te capi sarve rajanah ksatriyah putrapautrinah khyatas tvannamadheyasca bhavisyantlha sasvatah). Indeed, the Karnaparva (4.46) mentions the tribe of the "sons of Savitri" (sawhriputra) alongside the same Malavas, Madrakas, and Kshudrakas just mentioned. In Kashika (V. 3. 116), these "sons of Savitri" are considered as Gana, i.e., a militant "union" of the same type as the Malawas Gana.

We are talking about tribal history, the meaning of which is to establish the origin of clans and their kinship relations among themselves. The Savitriputra family (with its numerous branches - the "hundred sons" of Savitri) traced its genealogy to the Madras (on the maternal side), and considered the Malavas as brothers (more precisely, brothers of the mother). On the other hand," according to their father, " they claimed descent from the Shalvas and Shibis. "The Tale of Savitri" thus serves as a generic saga.

These tribes, as we have seen, are clearly localized in the north-west and west of India. Many of the stories in the Mahabharata relate to the close areas between the Indus and the Yamuna. Warlike clans lived here in the time of the Guptas, in the middle of the first millennium. It is probably not too bold to assume that the preservation of clan structures, constant wars and feuds of the nobility should have contributed to the development and preservation of epic creativity. Many indologists now speak of a " heroic age." But it is equally important to take into account the historical geography of India, highlighting a kind of "heroic land".

There is one curious feature of the social customs reflected in the"Legend of Savitri". The social morals of Hinduism required women to submit unconditionally to their elders and husbands. And Savitri diligently demonstrates this submissiveness (III. 279. 18-21). However, the plot as a whole is based on the fact that the woman is active and shows extraordinary energy (10). It is she who chooses her husband and firmly refuses her father when he asks her to change her mind. Savitri makes her own vows. and her father-in-law can't talk her out of it. The constant epithets of a woman- " defenseless, weak "(III. 281. 45) - are completely unsuitable for our heroine. In contrast, the epic definitions of Satyavan as "a hero like Indra"are very different.,


9. Law B.C. Tribes in Ancient India. Poona, 1973. P. 66.

10. We are not now concerned with the question of whether such a story can be connected with the well-known Hindu ideas about female energy (shakti, etc.).

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the courageous, firm, and brave (III. 278. 15, 19, etc.) do not find the slightest support in the plot. Next to Savitri, her husband looks weak and timid: she makes firm decisions, but he is used to obeying his parents in everything. In difficult circumstances, he only "sobs out loud", and his wife wipes away his tears (III. 281. 94-95).

The plot itself, of course, requires contrast: the active feminine principle is opposed by the passive masculine. But if we focus only on literary conventions, we will not be able to explain the ethnographic details. Satyavan's sons are not named after him, but after their mother, Savitriputra. And we see the same thing in the Madras tribe, for the descendants of Ashwapati are called Malavas after his consort. Obviously, the social role of women among the ethnic groups where this legend was formed was not quite the same as the normative texts of classical Hinduism present us as an ideal.

It is quite clear that the name Malawi - Savitri's mother-was invented only to compose the genealogy of the Malaw tribe. But what is the origin of the names of the main characters of the tale? - the answer to this question will help you get to the original origins of the story.

Where Savitri's chosen one is first mentioned, Narada utters a cryptic phrase (III. 278. 13): "As a boy, he loved horses, made them out of clay and painted them on pictures, and therefore he is called Chitrasva" (balasyasvah priyascasya karotyasvansca mmmayan citre pi vilikhatyasvanscitrasva iti cocyate). The name Chitrashva is no longer found in the text, and these "horse pictures"are not mentioned anywhere. It is obvious that Chitrashva is the real name of the hero, only partially preserved in the epic. The author of this version took care to interpret the name, forming it from citra and asva - "the horse in the picture", or "the one who has the horse in the pictures". But the real meaning of the name is clarified by reference to the Vedas. In these ancient monuments of Indian literature, the word citra does not mean "picture, image". In the Rig Veda, citra means "brilliant, bright, light". The word is often applied to horses - and to the Sun.

The famous Rig Veda hymn I. 115, for example, begins: "The glittering (citram) face of the gods has risen, the eye of Mitra, Varuna, Agni (citram devanam udagad arilkam caksur mitrasya varunasya agneh). Surya follows the resplendent goddess Ushas as bridegroom follows bride (suryo devim usasam rocamanam maryo na yosam abhy eti pascat)." The sun god Surya has shining horses (citra asva-1.115.3), they attract the goddess of dawn Ushas (VII. 75. 4 - asvas citra... usasam vahantah). Given such contexts, Chitrashwa can be interpreted as Surya's name - "one who has shining horses". Then, at the heart of the epic tale, we will discover the features of the original solar myth.

But if Chitrashva is a god, then we will have to abandon the epic doubling of the female character (princess and goddess) and limit ourselves to the goddess Savitri. Her name is also associated with one of the solar deities - Savitar (from the verb su - "to give birth"), the sun in the hypostasis of the generative principle. Hence the role of Savitri as a goddess who was called upon to help with the birth of children. Savitri was identified with the goddess Surya ("Atharvaveda". XIV. 2. 30 Surya Savitri, cf. VI. 82. 2). She was regarded as the daughter of the god Savitar (Rig Veda X. 85. 9: "Surya was married off by Savitar" - suryam ... patye... savitadadat).

Perhaps the sunny nature of the Savitri - Satyavan couple is also associated with the persistent repetition of epithets meaning beauty and radiance. Savitri Radiates Radiance (tejas-III. 277. 17, 27; 282. 34). Her husband also has a divine brilliance (III. 278. 14-15). Yama explains to Savitri that he did not send his servants to collect Satyavan's soul, but came himself, because the youth is extremely beautiful (III. 281. 15). His beauty is compared to the heavenly bodies (III. 278. 18), and his death is expressed by the term meaning literally. "extinction" (hataprabha-III. 281. 17).

The union of the goddess Surya with her husband could be considered as the first-a cosmic marriage. The wedding hymn of the Atharvaveda, for example, says (XIV. 2. 32):

"The gods in the beginning of time were joined with their spouses, their bodies were intertwined with their bodies; and you,

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O woman, like the goddess Surya, merge with your husband, procreating offspring " (deva agre nyapadyanta patmh samasp. rsanta tanvas tanubhih suryeva nari ... prajavafi patya sambhaveha).

Katyayana (Panini. IV. 1.48) says that the goddess Surya is the wife of the god Surya (suryasya stri surya). Thus, we have before us a solar myth, comparable to similar myths of other peoples. And in this context, such a detail as the death of the Sun (Chitrashva) in exactly one year finds its explanation. His divine consort Savitri ("begetter"), following him into the realm of death, gives birth again (su - "to give birth") The sun.

Analyzing the hymns of the Rig Veda about the consort of the god Surya, F. B. Y. Kuyper (11) comes to the conclusion that we are talking about the first dawn of the New Year, when the Sun comes out of the "time of crisis" (solstice), experiencing a new birth. This, in his opinion, is also connected with the role of the goddess Ushas as a life-giving principle, the giver of offspring. In Vedic myths, the image of Ushas is sometimes indistinguishable from Savitri / Surya (12).

For the hero's constantly used name, Satyavan, the author of the epic version also explains that he was so named because both his mother and father spoke the truth (satya - III. 278. 12). Satyavan is undoubtedly associated with satya, but this connection is actually somewhat different. In order to understand this, it is necessary to turn to the climax of the story - to the dialogue with death itself.

Savitri's lines are partly expressed in the usual epic scale (anushtubh-sloka), and partly in complex poetic dimensions. The use of the latter is usually accompanied by special appeals to God: III. 282. 22 " I will say something, and you will listen to it "(knncid vaksyami tacchrnu); III. 281. 33: "Listen to the word that I say" (nibodha cemam giram iritam maya); III. 281. 39: "Listen again to what I say "(giram samudyatam mayocyamanam srnu eva ha), etc. It is the fragments that accompany these introductions that fascinate Yama and delight him as speech that differs in sounds, form and meaning (anaya gira svaraksa-ravyanjanahetuyuktaya-III. 281. 25). They force him to offer more and more gifts to the woman.

From the translations of these texts into any language, it is difficult to understand what exactly delights God so much. They seem dark in meaning, incoherent, and irrelevant to the situation. Savitri is really difficult to express - she addresses God in the "language of the gods". Translations are not able to preserve the main thing-the sound of words. Every utterance of Savitri is dominated by certain combinations of sounds. In the first (III. 281. 23-24) it is dha\ha and r: dharmam... dharmam udaharanti dharmam ahuh pradhanam. Savitri does not only say what she says, referring to dharma, "the main thing" (pradhanam), "said" (ahur), etc., she also pronounces the verb dhr- "to be alive" in various ways (cf. III. 281. 97: dhriyetam - "to be alive"; III. 282. 134: dhriyate - "alive").

In its second utterance (III. 281. 29: "For the good, union with the good is desirable, one should associate with the good," etc.), the syllables sa and ta are repeated: satam sak.rt samgatam "Ipsitam param satpurusena samgatam satam samnivaset samagame. We see the same thing in the fifth utterance (III. 281. 46-47): satam sada... santo na sTdanti satam sadbhir...samgamo sti sadbhyo... santah santah hi satyena nayanti suryam santo bhumim...dharayanti santo...satam madhye navasldanti santah . The meaning can be translated: The Good ones do not disappear, communication with the good ones is not fruitless. Thanks to the good, the Earth stands and the Sun moves; among the good, the good will not perish, etc. - cf. Rigveda X. 85. 1: "The Earth is held up by Truth (satyenottabhita bhumih)." But most importantly, sat - "good, pious", the participle from the verb as - "to be, to exist"is endlessly repeated here. A woman recites a magic formula, calling to life.

In its fourth utterance (III. 281. 41-42), vi and svas are heard: visvasas.-.visesena visvaso visesena... visvasam. Visvasa is not just about "trust". The verb vi-svas means "to breathe"


11. Kuyper F. B. Ya. Trudy po vediiskoi mifologii [Works on Vedic Mythology], Moscow, 1986, pp. 62-63.

12.The structure of mythology cannot be ordered according to individual characters of the latter. The mythological function is always more important than the specific performers of the role.

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(cf. III. 281. 17 on the deceased Satyavana gatasvasa - "the breathless one"). Visvasa Savitri's elephant breathes life into her husband.

In the third utterance (III. 281. 33), the name of Yama himself is played with the sounds ua and ta: prajas tvayema niyamena samyata niyamya nayase na kamyaya ato yamatvam tava cemam ... maya. Savitri shows that he knows the name of God, thereby mastering it. She also mentions his other names (III. 281. 40-Vaivasvata, Dharmaraja), explaining their meaning in such a way as to achieve the desired result (You are the god of justice, and justice consists in mercy to sentient beings, etc.). We are undoubtedly dealing with conspiracies, the poetics of which are similar to those that are manifested in the world. in the Vedic mantras.

It is known that in the mythological consciousness the name does not seem to be an arbitrary designation - it is perceived as an organic part of a being or thing (13). This is the basis of the traditional Vedic discipline - " nirukta "(the so-called"etymology"). For native speakers of this culture, the etymology cannot in principle be "false": after all, if there is at least some closeness between the sounds that make up certain words, there must be a "kinship" (bandhu) and between what exactly these words mean. Vedic incantations and theological "explanations" in Brahmanic prose have the same basis. And Savitri does not just pray to God - she fascinates him with "names", gaining magical power over him. The necessary substances (life, breath, existence) can be evoked by saying their names in hints - in the "language of the gods".

Satyavan's" truthfulness " is not revealed in the plot (nor is the truthfulness of his parents mentioned in the epic). Satyavan is undoubtedly associated with the same word sat - "existing" (= "good"), which was just discussed. Satya ("truth") is derived from the verb as - "to be". Only "truth" truly exists, because its antonym ("lie" - anrta) is associated with death, and therefore does not have a true being.

"Truthful" is synonymous with "living" because of the primordial identity between cosmic truth, light, and life. And then it is clear why Savitri's husband, "The Truthful One "(Satyavan), "who has shining horses" (Chitrashva), must necessarily be snatched from the hands of the black god of death. In the cosmic battle of two principles, being wins over non-being (sat over asat (14)). Or, as stated in the famous fragment of the Mundaka Upanishad (III. 1. 16), satyameva jayate nanrtam-"Only the Truth prevails, not the Lie."

DIALOGUE WITH THE DEATH A.A. Vigasin

"The Book of the Forest" (Book III of Mahabharata) contains the legend about Princess Savitri's dramatic debate with Yama, the Indian god of death. Satisfied with her words, the god granted her some boons: a hundred sons to her father and her mother Malavi, a hundred sons to herself and even live to her dead husband Satyavat. The names of the characters provide a clue to the origin of this famous story, which is to be seen in solar mythology. Satyavat, called also Citrashva ("whose horses are radiant") was a form of the Sun and his consort Savitri ("giving birth") can be identified with the goddess Surya.

The name Satyavat ("he who tells the truth") was brought into connection with the word meaning "true" or "existent". Savitri, pronouncing magic spells, stresses the basic identity of this "Truth" (satyd) with the cosmic principle of existence, or life.

This myth was transformed into an epic legend about the ancestry of some aristocratic clans in Western India. It is interesting to mention that these clans (the "sons" of Savitri and her mother Malavi -Malava and Savitriputra) called themselves after their mythical "foremothers", not "forefathers".


13. См. Gonda J. Notes on Names and the Names of God in Ancient India. Amsterdam-London. 1970. P. 29 f.

14. For more information, see the famous works of W. N. Brown (Brown W. N. The Creation Myth of the Rg Veda;

The Rigvedic Equivalent for Hell; Early Philosophical Speculation in the Rg Veda // India and Indology. Selected Articles by W.N. Brown / Ed. R. Rocher. Delhi, 1978).


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