Libmonster ID: IN-1352
Author(s) of the publication: L. P. Marinovich

(Moscow, 29-30 June )

The next conference of the Russian Association of Antiquarians was held on June 29-30, 2000 in Moscow, in the premises of the Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Conference topic: "Ancient Studies at the turn of the Millennium: interdisciplinary research and new methods (computer science, underwater archaeology and computer database development)" 1 .


1 The conference was held with the financial support of the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project N 00-06-85025. Abstracts published: Ancient Studies at the Turn of the Millennium: Interdisciplinary Research and new methods (informatics, Underwater Archaeology and Creation of a computer database), Moscow, 2000 (Russian Association of Ancient Studies, Institute of General History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Lomonosov Moscow State University).

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The organizers of the conference proceeded from the premise that modern antiquity is a more or less organic unity-with one object of study, such as ancient civilization, but differing in research methods. Accordingly, historians, archaeologists, numismatists, linguists, and philologists took part in the conference. The organizers tried to build its work in such a way as to ensure a dialogue between representatives of various narrow specialties and compare methodological approaches and particular methods, identifying the most promising ones.

The conference was opened by G. M. Bongard-Levin, President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and was welcomed by B. S. Myasnikov, Deputy Secretary of the RAS History Department, A. O. Chubaryan, Director of the RAS Institute of World History, R. M. Munchaev, Director of the RAS Institute of Archaeology, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, and Prof. Ferrari from the French School of Higher Studies in Practice and Professor D. Braund from the University of Exeter (Great Britain).

Three reports were delivered at the morning plenary session on June 29. N. V. Polosmak spoke about the remarkable discovery of Siberian archaeologists in her report "Interdisciplinary methods for studying the frozen graves of Altai". During the excavation of one of the mounds, the burial of a noble woman of the Kara - Koba culture (III-II centuries BC) was discovered.The grave pit turned out to be frozen, which ensured good preservation of the buried itself, six bridled horses, ritual tables, cult dishes and food, vessels and other items. The ice preserved the mummified body of the woman, her clothes (silk shirt, wool skirt, felt stockings) and jewelry. Her head was covered with a wig with a peculiar pommel, which was decorated with 15 wooden figures of birds covered with gold foil. For the first time, the inventory was discovered in full, and all items are distinguished by high craftsmanship.

In his report on the Olympic Games, V. I. Kuzishchin spoke about the need for their comprehensive study, using an interdisciplinary method, and highlighted a number of possible aspects - political, legal, sports, ethical, etc. He also emphasized the difference between these games and other common Greek games (Pythian, Nemean, Isthmian). The speaker himself focused on the Olympic Games as a phenomenon of ancient culture. V. I. Kuzishchin defined the revival of the Olympic Games at the end of the XIX century as a phenomenon that contributes in every possible way to the humanization of society.

Report of Prof. D. Braunda of the University of Exeter was devoted to the problem of using new data to adequately clarify the place of the Northern Black Sea region in the history of Greece. In particular, he pointed out that even explicitly short-story texts can contribute to this by presenting connecting links in the ancient tradition. More specifically, it was a fragment of a previously unknown work found among papyri in Oxyrhynchus. A certain Calligona, telling about herself to the queen of the Amazons named Temisto, mentions the Milesian settlement of Borysthenes (Olbia). The fragment also talks about places, etc.

Two speakers addressed the closing plenary session. G. A. Koshelenko in his report "New methods in classical archaeology: the price of progress" focused on the increasing penetration of natural science methods into archaeology. The computer with its huge capabilities for creating, processing and using databases has come into archaeological practice. At the same time. as the speaker noted, all this has negative consequences, the most important of which is the impact on the researcher's mentality of a simplified technocratic approach, which is especially dangerous in the current dehumanization of society. G. A. Koshelenko urged to perceive new natural science methods as simple tools. The highest goal of scientists should remain the desire for as deep a comprehension of ancient civilization as possible as the cornerstone of the humanistic principles of our own civilization.

A. A. Rossius in the report " What did scientific theories and technical progress give to classical philology in the XIX century?" He emphasized the difference between the results of using modern computer programs to study antiquity and some concepts that were introduced from outside at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries (Freud, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, Dobbs). Despite all its obvious shortcomings, the computer and its multiplying programs contribute to a better understanding of ancient texts, while historiosophical, psychoanalytic and other concepts have proved unacceptable for elucidating the nature of ancient culture. Very popular in their time, they aroused enthusiasm and stimulated the appearance of a number of works, but did not meet the expectations that were pinned on them.

The presentations delivered in section I, "Methodology and new research methods", generated a lively discussion due to the methods that allowed their authors to expand the field of analysis.

The prosopographical aspect in the genealogical tradition of the Athenian nobility was the topic of A. A. Molchanov's report. Three features, according to the speaker, distinguished it, confirming the hereditary right to possess the status of eupatrids: proclaiming a genealogical connection with a deity, a generic cult, and naming children with names that clearly indicated kinship with legendary ancestors or with very specific individuals who left an indelible memory in the history of their native polis. A quantitative analysis of these proper names was carried out by S. G. Karpyuk in the study of democratic and oligarchic ideology in classical Greece. As "political"shows

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onomastics, in Athens, during the classical and Hellenistic periods, there were established groups of the civilian population with a democratic and anti-democratic (aristocratic) orientation, and the ratio between these groups did not change much over time.

The second set is presented by reports, the authors of which turned to various methods related to archaeological work. The paleogeographic situation on the Taman Peninsula in ancient times was studied using radiocarbon dating (report by Yu. V. Gorlov and A.V. Porotov). For the first time, changes in sea level since the first millennium BC were established here.

V. A. Gaibov, using the example of Central Asia (the Merv oasis in Turkmenistan), demonstrated what new opportunities archaeological maps provide for historical conclusions. The methods of work consist of a combination of excavation and exploration, aerial and space images are used, and specialists in paleogeology, geomorphology, and paleoclimatology are involved. As a result, it became possible to present a picture of changes in settlement systems on the territory of the oasis for more than 3,500 years, starting from the end of the third millennium BC.

The complex method was used to study ramparts on the territory of the Bosporan Kingdom in its European part-in the Eastern Crimea (report by A. A. Maslennikov). Ramparts, in general, remain perhaps the most mysterious objects of the ancient Bosporus. The specific nature of these monuments made it necessary to involve a number of natural science disciplines, including radiocarbon dating.

The relationship between archaeology and narrative sources was one of the main issues discussed at section II "Interdisciplinary Research". In general, from the point of view of the object of study and methods, this problem was presented in the report of S. M. Perevalov, which is clearly debatable. According to the speaker, in practice, both historians and archaeologists ignore the specifics of a particular source, attracting the conclusions of specialists in related disciplines. S. M. Perevalov urged scientists to preserve the specifics of their scientific disciplines. The correlation of sources at a specific level was considered in the report of I. M. Bezruchenko in relation to the history of the Aegis of the second millennium BC. The report focuses on the question of chronology - archaeological and legendary. Joining the number of scientists who consider it possible to correlate the data of tradition and archeology within the "heroic age" of Hellas, I. M. Bezruchenko dates the flood of Deucalion, for example, to the XVIII century BC, and the time of Theseus ' life to the beginning of the XIV century BC, which can be interpreted as a memory of the conquest of Crete by the Achaeans after the catastrophe of the XV n. e.

Another aspect of interdisciplinary research - its benefits and "harms" - was discussed in the report of Yu. G. Chernyshev on the example of the correlation between ancient studies and the science of utopia. Turning to historiography, the speaker noted that utopian scholars, as a rule, were poorly versed in ancient realities, while ancient scholars had a weak idea of the specifics of such a phenomenon as a social utopia. Only in the middle of the 20th century did a certain turning point appear: the transition from dilettante-ideologized approaches to serious research, combining a detailed analysis of sources and a good knowledge of theory. O. N. Mamina called for an interdisciplinary study of Late Antique culture in her report. The analysis of socio-economic and political life should be preceded by a study of the spheres of upbringing and education, rhetoric, philosophy and law, religion and customs.

Among the reports on the history of Greece and Hellenism (section III "Hellas and the Hellenistic world"), the political theme prevailed, and in it - the archaic polis. V. V. Gorovoy's report "Polis structure and "arithmetic" of the Greek society of the Archaic period: towards a problem statement " is of a more general nature. Pointing out that in modern antiquity studies, the polis as a phenomenon of antiquity structurally includes three hypostases of civilizational development: the community, the city and the state, the speaker drew attention to the underestimation of the significance of the specific development of the community in the polis, which leads to an underestimation of such a socially structurative experience of the ancient Greeks as the experience of the Great Greek Colonization.

The reconstruction of Cleisthenes ' law on ostracism was proposed by I. S. Surikov on the basis of a recently published excerpt from an anonymous Byzantine work of the 15th century. The passage contains new, highly valuable information on this subject. As far as can be judged, the author who served as the original source of the Byzantine anonymous (most likely, Theophrastus) should have had an authentic text of the law, the wording of which he used in his presentation. E. I. Solomatina addressed one of the most controversial issues in the scientific literature about the form and essence of individual power in her report "Archaic era Esymnets in ancient sources". In her opinion, esymnetia of the archaic period was the name of the form of supreme state power that fit into the system of polis magistracies, and esymnet, being the sole ruler, was an extraordinary magistrate, who in later sources could be called a tyrant by the authors.

The subject of I. I. Kovaleva's report was a myth in the structure of the Panathenaeum - one of the largest events in the religious life of classical Athens. The speaker does not exclude that the appearance of the myth of Erichthonius, the inventor of the chariot, is directly related to the desire of Peisistratus to ideologically legitimize his power, which in the VI century BC inevitably took the form of a myth.

Some aspects of the attitude of the Greeks to the barbarians were clarified by M. M. Dandamayeva in the report " Nationalism

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in antiquity". Not being racists in the modern sense of the word, the Greeks were confident of their superiority over foreigners. At the same time, no matter how much the Greeks evaluated the moral qualities and achievements of barbarians, they always showed great interest in their customs and culture, trying to analyze and explain them. The Greeks did not suffer from such vices of the New Age as anti-Semitism and prejudice against black skin.

Investigating the question of the origin of the Hellenistic monarchy, O. G. Klimov emphasized the importance of a fairly wide spread of individual power in the Greek world and its influence on the political life and consciousness of the Greeks, especially in Asia Minor. Here, the rulers formed a system of their own governing bodies, which were not connected with the polis or Persian political structure. Perhaps Hellenism in the sphere of political relations did not produce fundamentally new phenomena and forms, but it became a time of intensive development of the already established political tradition.

The topics of the reports in section VII "Rome: History, Culture, Law"were very diverse.

I. L. Mayak called for a more circumspect criticism of the ancient tradition of the tsarist and early Republican times in the history of Rome. The reason for this was the replenishment of the source base with new materials, first of all, the results obtained during the excavations of the Roman Palatine hill and the necropolis of the town of Gabia, where, in particular, vessels with Greek letters were found. Studies conducted using natural science methods show that the ancient tradition of ancient Rome is very reliable, including the informative value of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. I. L. Mayak stressed the need to abandon unrestrained hypercriticism and return to a rational critical method of evaluating sources.

In his report "Rome and Veii: two centuries of Roman-Etruscan confrontation" V. N. Tokmakov highlighted the main stages of this struggle, showed its significance and consequences. This confrontation determined not only the foreign policy and interethnic situation in Central Italy, but also largely the socio-political and religious-ideological development of Rome itself. It influenced the formation of Roman political and military institutions, and became a decisive factor in Roman ethnic and state identity.

Evidence from sources such as Titus Livy, Polybius, and Appian about siege technology during the Second Punic War was reviewed in the report of K. A. Revyako. The achievements of Roman poliorquetique were particularly evident at the siege of Capua and in Iberia, during Scipio's siege of New Carthage. A. V. Kolbov devoted his report to the cult of Dionysus-Bacchus in the Roman army stationed during the principate in Dalmatia and Moesia. Dionysian plots were often reproduced in specifically military means of official propaganda. This deity, in all likelihood, attracted soldiers as a symbol of the unrestrained elements, inspiring courage in battle, and as an embodiment of the cycle of life and death, giving hope for a subsequent resurrection.

I. A. Gvozdeva's report "Flavian agrarian policy and the formation of land law"is of historical and legal nature. Starting from the Augustan era, the speaker traced the evolution of land law, noting changes in it under Vespasian and Domitian. Pointing out the ambiguity of historians ' decision on the results of overcoming the crisis of the third century in the Roman Empire, I. P. Sergeev explained this by different ideas of scientists about the causes and nature of the crisis. Interpreting it as political in nature, the speaker considers the main result of overcoming the crisis to be the replacement of the principate system with a dominant one.

Mostly the interpretation of a single source was contained in the reports heard at section VI "Experience of a new reading of the source".

Feognidus ' arguments about poverty were the subject of N. S. Talashova's report. The author notes the amazing realism of Theognides, his desire to understand the causes of poverty, and his hope to overcome it with prudence. In the poet's arguments about poverty, the steadfastness and wisdom of the Hellenes were manifested. An analysis of the inscription representing the victory relation of Spartiatus Damonon was given in the report of M. E. Kurilov. The text of this unique epigraphic source contains a lot of material that has not yet been widely introduced into scientific circulation (the nature of the names of magistrates mentioned in the inscription, a number of cult and agonal centers of Lacedaemon). P. V. Kovalev drew attention to the significance of non-narrative sources in the reconstruction of Greek law of the Archaic era in his report. The speaker refers to the material evidence that has emerged as a result of research in recent decades. Their range depends on what branch of law and policy the scientist is dealing with.

V. D. Zhigunin's report is devoted to the problem of historical tradition, which is fundamentally important for ancient studies. We are talking about the sources on the basis of which the views of Hellenistic Stoics on the primitive era were formed, in particular, the epitomes of Pompey Trogus 'work and Lucian's treatise "Two Loves". In addition to the already known fragments, the speaker considers it possible to include those in which the stoic point of view is not clearly stated. Attention is also drawn to the importance for ancient authors of such sources as geographical and archaeological, the scientific development of which is only just beginning.

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The testament of King Attalus III of Pergamum was the subject of A. P. Belikov's report. Dealing mainly with the motives of the will, scientists, according to the speaker, have reached a certain impasse. However, they completely ignored its diplomatic and psychological aspects. The speaker considers Attalus ' testament as one of the examples of Roman diplomacy aimed at absorbing dependent kingdoms.

A. S. Kryukov reported on the results of studying the political dictionary of Tacitus from the point of view of revealing his worldview. As a clear example of reflecting the worldview of a historian in his vocabulary, the speaker showed the use of the words principatus and dominatio. The political dictionary of Tacitus, according to A. S. Kryukov, reflected the inconsistency of the principate system itself and the ambivalent attitude of the historian to this system.

Referring to fragment 2 of Phlegont Trallsky's "Amazing Stories", V. N. Ilyushechkin investigated the question of the origins of the mythological motif about the "prophetic head". The story about it is contained not only in mythological, but also in literary contexts, the analysis of which was given in the report ("The Life of Apollonius of Tyana" by Philostratus," Aeneid " by Virgil, etc.).

It is traditional for Russian antiquity studies to show an increased interest in the ancient period of the Northern Black Sea region, which was the subject of reports heard and discussed at the sessions of section V "Archeology and History of the Northern Black Sea Region".

S. Y. Saprykin's report "Hellenistic kingdoms in the Black Sea region" traces two ways of development of Hellenistic kingdoms in the Black Sea basin. Using the example of Thrace, which was a typical Hellenistic state under Roman control, it is proved that it was the Roman Empire that helped strengthen the centralized state. The Bosporan kingdom, with the support of Rome, retained the features of a Hellenistic state until the middle of the third century AD, developing along the path that Pontus and partly Armenia Minor, Cappadocia and Bithynia followed in the Hellenistic era. Roman support for the Bosporus cemented Mithridatic features in its political system and culture in the first centuries AD.

V. P. Yaylenko's report "The cult of Apollo Delphinius and his temenos in Olbia" is devoted to the reconstruction of the buildings of the Olbia sanctuary of Delphinius. The speaker proceeds from the character of the cult of Delphinius in the interpretation of L. A. Gindin - it is a cult of the Hittite deity of wind and fertility borrowed by the Greeks of Ionia. Since it is an "atmospheric" deity, its cult did not tolerate closeness, and it is for this reason that the Milesian sanctuary of Delphinium was a platform with an open-air altar. Accordingly, there was no temple of Apollo on Olbia Temenos in the fifth century BC - the sanctuary of Delphinius was the whole of Temenos. The report also examines the history of the buildings of Olbia temenos.

Monetary circulation on the Bosporus is the topic of M. G. Abramzon's report. To date, about forty hoards of ancient treasures are known, two dozen of them have not yet been introduced into scientific circulation. As a result of the research conducted by the speaker, a corpus of coin hoards of the Asian Bosporus was compiled for the first time, which allowed us to present their chronological classification in the light of recent data. All the treasures found in the Krasnodar Territory are divided into five chronological groups (VI century BC - VI century AD).

Turning to the problem of the formation of dynastic names, A. A. Zavoikin shared several observations on the evolution of the onomasticon of the Spartokid dynasty in the report "Satyr, son of Perisad, and his son Perisad (notes on the dynastic history of the Spartokids". The speaker suggested a different attribution of some names than is accepted in the literature (including names marked in graffiti from the sanctuary of Aphrodite from Nymphaeum).

N. P. Bolgov called for an interdisciplinary study of the Late Antique period in the history of the Bosporus. Noting that historians do not study social, cultural, and partly economic aspects, and that this area of knowledge is almost exclusively the responsibility of archaeologists, he pointed out the need for comprehensive work, including specialists in related fields of natural sciences-paleobotany, paleozoology, etc.

S. V. Mokrousov made a report on the chronology of rural settlements of the Crimean Azov region in the early Byzantine period. As the excavations have shown, there are sufficient grounds for creating a general chronological scale of the evolution of these settlements in the period from the return of the Eastern Crimea under the rule of Byzantium under Justinian I to the Turkic invasion.

E. A. Molev introduced the epigraphic monuments from the excavations of Kitey to the conference participants.

At the meeting of the historiographic section (IV), some results of the study of ancient civilization on the threshold of the third millennium were summed up.

The first speaker was E. A. Chiglintsev's report on ancient slavery as a historiographical problem. Noting the main differences in approaches to the phenomenon of ancient slavery between the XIX and XX centuries, the speaker showed the existence of two trends in the XX century - universalist and national. E. A. Chiglintsev considers the ideological confrontation between the two systems to be important socio-cultural factors in the development of both systems. In the future, when studying ancient slavery, it seems to the speaker that the national socio-cultural experience will be leveled by the tasks facing world science as a whole.

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F. I. Akhmadiev, in his report on V. I. Modestov and V. P. Buzeskula, two prominent figures of Russian antiquity, highlighted the common features that they have in common - an interest in historiographical problems. Similarities are not limited to a general understanding of the research object. Both paid special attention to research methods. At the same time, the speaker also showed differences in the historiographical approaches of scientists, which were due to their belonging to different directions in Russian historical science.

Among the most important and popular topics in ancient studies is certainly the military history and military organization of ancient Rome. In the report of A.V. Makhlayuk, several stages in their study were identified and each one was characterized. At the same time, a number of problems are still waiting for their time (demographic aspects, ideology and practice of military leadership, etc.).

Turning to the study of Thracian lands in the first centuries AD, A. P. Martemyanov considered the development of issues related to the Roman military presence in the provinces of Lower Moesia and Thrace to be a priority. Traditionally, the study of the social system also occupies an important place, but it is completely static. In recent decades, interest in rural areas has increased.

I. V. Tunkina's report "Disputes on the ways of development of Russian classical archeology in the first third of the XIX century"was largely based on archival material. The counterbalance of St. Petersburg academic science in the study of ancient antiquities of the Northern Black Sea region was then provincial lovers of archeology, who grew up to be serious researchers. By 1823, I. A. Stempkovsky published the first scientific research program of Russian classical archaeology. The speaker gave a very high assessment of the activities of I. A. Stempkovsky and other "provincials", noting the unfair treatment of them in Russian historiography. His ideas were in demand almost a century later in the program of M. I. Rostovtsev. The Stempkovsky-Rostovtsev program remains the most comprehensive research program in ancient archaeology and the history of the Northern Black Sea region.

The use of computer methods in ancient studies is still taking its first steps. Therefore, the reports devoted to them aroused great interest, and the work of section VIII "Computer methods in the science of antiquity" was particularly lively.

Two reports focused on the database. The purpose of the report "Database as a historical tool" by A.V. Gribkov and N. A. Selunskaya is to clarify the role of the database in historical research and the correct separation of the functions of its creators - the historian and the programmer, which allows creating a functionally capable database for historical research. Having defined the database as a special way of storing information in electronic form, the speakers drew attention to the principle of single data entry as one of the most important requirements and described the database structure, giving fragments of two schemes as an example.

In his report on the database in classical archaeology, N. I. Sudarev summed up some results of work in this area and outlined the prospects for development. In recent decades, computer databases have been widely used in Russian archaeology. They exist for ceramics, epigraphy, numismatics, and other material categories, but are not published. Meanwhile, the task of publishing them in electronic form is extremely urgent.

I. S. Sventsitskaya spoke about the results of computer processing of epigraphic sources on the example of Phrygian tombstones of the II-III centuries AD. These tombstones provide an opportunity to explore the composition of the family, the system of names, and changes in these components depending on the area - city, town, or village. Computer processing of tombstones allows us to imagine the trend in family construction, ethnic assimilation, as well as the changes that occurred with the adoption of Christianity. A comparison of urban and rural tombstones showed that kinship ties were preserved longer in villages, and there are more Anatolian names in them than in urban inscriptions.

One of the most urgent tasks in ancient history is to optimize the information base of epigraphy. The nature and feasibility of the PETRAE program served as the subject of the report of I. V. Makarov, who laid it at the basis of the work he started on the preparation of the corpus of Greek inscriptions of ancient Chersonesus. This program, created at the Center for the Study of Antiquity and the Middle Ages at the University of Bordeaux Ch, has the ability to register and automatically process multilingual and multi-level information.

Useful information for working on the Internet was provided by the report of three authors "Antiquity on the Internet". N. V. Braginskaya introduced the audience to numerous sites on certain areas of ancient studies (publications of authors, works on history, religion, law, magazines, etc.), Yu.N. Litvinenko - with sites on papyrology, E. V. Lyapustin - on the history of ancient Rome, mainly the Imperial era.

New perspectives in the methodology of studying open up information technologies. They are especially obvious when using computer technology. The computer-based educational program on the history of ancient culture was demonstrated by M. G. Yunusova in the report "Two faces of ancient culture". The program is one of the first options for implementing the method of "immersion" (using computer technology) in the typological reconstruction of the culture of the ancient world. It is widely used-

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It is used for lectures and individual classes by students at the History Department of Kazan University.

Russian antiquity was fully based on school and university education. Based on this position, L. A. Sakhnenko in her report turned to the present. The reform of the school and university education system carried out in 1995-2000 raises concerns about the future not only of ancient history, but also of universal history as a whole. The school, entering the third millennium, ignores the general history. The university is placed even further away from general history and the disciplines of ancient studies than it was before.

The conference was undoubtedly an important event in our scientific life both from the point of view of its representativeness (number of participants, geography of research centers) and from the point of view of the topics of the reports read and discussed, and allowed us to get a fairly representative idea of the research problems of Russian antiquaries and their scientific level.


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